تأثیر برنامه تمرینی مهارت های ادراکی-حرکتی بر توجه انتخابی و ارتقاء نظریه ذهن در کودکان 12-8 سال

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار رفتار حرکتی پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد رفتارحرکتی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
نظریه ذهن به عنوان هسته مرکزی شناخت اجتماعی، یکی از محورهای مهم رشد روانی-اجتماعی در دوران کودکی به شمار می­رود که توجه انتخابی نقش اساسی در رشد جنبه ­های پیشرفته آن ایفا می­کند. تاکنون مداخلات گوناگونی برای توان­بخشی کودکان پیشنهاد شده است، اما طراحی مداخلات مبتنی بر توانای ی­های ادراکی-حرکتی دور از توجه بوده است؛ از این­رو، در پژوهش حاضر، تأثیر تمرین مهارت­ های ادراکی-حرکتی بر توجه انتخابی و ارتقاء نظریه ذهن در کودکان 12-8 سال مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش ­ها
روش پژوهش حاضر از نوع نیمه ­تجربی با طرح پیش­آزمون-پس­آزمون با گروه کنترل بود که در آن 24 دختر با میانگین سنی 10/5 سال از بین دانش­ آموزان شهر تهران انتخاب شدند و به ‌صورت تصادفی در دو گروه تجربی و کنترل جای گرفتند (هر گروه 12 نفر). از آزمون ­های استروپ و نظریه ذهن برای سنجش متغیرها، قبل و بعد از دوره آزمایشی (16 جلسه 45 دقیقه ­ای، چهار جلسه در هفته به مدت یک ماه) استفاده شد. پروتکل آزمایشی شامل تمرین مهارت­های ادراکی-حرکتی با تأکید بر تعادل، آگاهی فضایی، آگاهی زمانی، آگاهی بدنی و جهت­یابی بود. در تحلیل داده ­ها از تحلیل کوواریانس در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد استفاده شد.
یافته­ ها
پس از کنترل سطوح پیش ­آزمون، اثر گروه بر توجه انتخابی (0/015=p)، بازشناسی عواطف و وانمود (0/023=p)، درک باور غلط (0/011=p) و درک شوخی و باور غلط ثانویه (0/048=p) معنادار بود، به­طوری­که گروه تجربی در مقایسه با کنترل، زمان استروپ کوتاه­تر و سطوح نظریه ذهن بالاتری داشت. همچنین، اندازه اثر مداخله آزمایشی بر جنبه ­های پیشرفته نظریه ذهن کوچکتر از جنبه­ های اولیه بود (0/17 در مقابل 0/35).
نتیجه­ گیری
تمرین مهارت­ های ادراکی-حرکتی بر بهبود توجه انتخابی و رشد نظریه ذهن در کودکان دختر سالم رده سنی 8 تا 12 سال موثر است، اما برای اثرگذاری بر جنبه­ های پیشرفته ­تر نظریه ذهن (درک شوخی و باور غلط ثانویه) نیاز به مداخلات پیچیده­تر با تأکید بر تعاملات بین فردی وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of a Perceptual-Motor Skills Training Program on Selective Attention and Improving Theory of Mind in Children Aged 8-12 Years

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saleh Rafiee 1
  • Atieh Ramezani 2
  • Ali Kashi 1
1 PhD, Assistant Professor in Motor Behavior, Institute of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 MSc in Motor Behavior, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Theory of mind, as the central core of social cognition, is one of the
important components of psycho-social development during childhood and selective attention plays a critical role in developing the advanced aspects of this theory. Various interventions have been suggested so far for the rehabilitation of children with disorders, but deisgning interventions based on the perceptual-motor abilities have been overlooked. In the present study, therefore, the effect of a perceptual-motor skills training program on selective attention and improving theory of mind in children aged 8-12 years was studied.
Materials and Methods: The research method used was quasi-experimental with pre- and post-test design with a control group. A total of 24 girls, with an average age of 10.5 years, were selected among all students in Tehran and were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups (12 individuals in each group). Stroop and theory of mind tests were used to measure the variables before and after the experimental period (16 sessions, each session for 45 minutes, 4 session per week, for one month). The experimental protocol consisted of training perceptual-motor skills with emphasis on balance, spatial awareness, temporal awareness, body awareness, and lateralization. Data analysis
was performed using covariance analysis at the 95% confidence level.
Results: The effects of group on selective attention (p=0.015), recognition of emotions and pretense (p>=0.023), understanding of false belief (p>=0.011), and understanding of humor and second-order false belief (p>=0.048) were significant after controlling for the effects of pre-test levels. Therefore, the experimental group, as compared with the control group, had shorter Stroop time and higher levels of theory of mind. Also, the effect size of experimental intervention on the advanced aspects of theory of
mind was smaller than that of the primary aspects (0.17 vs. 0.35).
Conclusion: Perceptual-motor skills training is effective in improving selective attention and
development of theory of mind in healthy girls aged 8 to 12 years, but there is a need for more complex interventions with an emphasis on interpersonal interaction in order to influence the more advanced aspect of theory of mind (understanding of humor and second-order false belief).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • motor skills
  • Perception
  • attention
  • Theory of mind
  • Child Development
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