بررسی اثر ورزشکار بودن بر ساختار و سازماندهی کنترل عصبی راه رفتن با و بدون اعمال آشفتگی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

2 دانشیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

3 استادیار بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

4 استادیار مهندسی برق الکترونیک، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
آیا انجام تمرینات طولانی­مدت کنترل عصبی الگوی راه رفتن را تغییر می‌دهد؟ هدف از انجام مطالعه حاضر، بررسی اثر ورزشکار بودن بر ساختار و سازماندهی کنترل عصبی راه رفتن با و بدون اعمال آشفتگی بود.
مواد و روش­ ها
مطالعه حاضر به عنوان یک مطالعه نیمه ­تجربی اجرا شد. آزمودنی‌ها شامل 12 دانشجوی فوتبالیست و 12 دانشجوی غیرورزشکار دانشگاه مازندران بودند. آنها الگوی راه رفتن روی نوار گردان با چشمان باز و چشمان بسته را اجرا کردند. الکترومیوگرافی عضلات اندام تحتانی طی راه رفتن با سیستم نورآکسون ثبت شد. متغیرهای سینرژی عضلانی شامل مجموع، دوره، اوج و ناحیه فعالیت عضلات بود که با استفاده از روش فاکتورگیری ماتریکس غیرمنفی محاسبه شد. مقایسه داده ­ها برای ارزیابی متغیرها با آزمون تحلیل واریانس دوطرفه در نرم­افزار اس.پی.اس.اس انجام شد.
یافته ­ها
ورزشکاران دوره فعالیت و مجموع فعالیت عضلات کمتری در راه رفتن با چشمان باز را نسبت به غیرورزشکاران نشان دادند (0/001>p). اوج فعالیت عضلات ورزشکاران در راه رفتن با چشمان باز نسبت به راه رفتن با چشمان بسته غیرورزشکاران بالاتر بود (0/003=p)، در مقابل دوره فعالیت، سطح فعالیت و مجموع فعالیت عضلات در ورزشکاران نسبت به غیرورزشکاران پایین­ تر بود (0/001>p).
نتیجه­ گیری
نتایج مطالعه حاضر پیشنهاد می‌دهد که انجام تمرینات ورزشی برای دوره طولانی می‌تواند تعدیلات سیستم عصبی-عضلانی در الگوی راه رفتن را تغییر دهد. بازیکنان فوتبال توانایی به ­کارگیری گروه‌های عضلانی با اوج فعالیت بیشتر عضلات را دارند. در مقابل، دوره فعالیت، ناحیه فعالیت و مجموع فعالیت عضلات در بازیکنان فوتبال نسبت به افراد غیرورزشکار کمتر است و می‌تواند گواهی برای تصمیم­گیری متفاوت سیستم عصبی-عضلانی این گروه‌ها هنگام اجرای الگوی حرکتی راه رفتن باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Being Athlete on the Structure and Organization of Walking Neural Control with and without Disturbance

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Yaserifar 1
  • Ziya Fallah Mohammadi 2
  • Sayed Esmaiel Hosseininejad 3
  • Iman Esmaili paeen Afrakoti 4
1 PhD Candidate, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
2 PhD, Associated Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
3 PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Sports Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
4 PhD, Assistant Professor, Department Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Does long-term training modify the neural control of walking pattern? The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of being athlete on the structure and organization of walking neural control with and without disturbance.
Materials and Methods: The present study was performed as a semi-experimental study. Participants included 12 football plyer students and 12 non-athlete students at the University of Mazandaran. They performed treadmill walking pattern with open-eyes and closed-eyes conditions. Lower extremity muscles electromyography was collected using Noraxon system during walking. Muscle synergy variables, including sum, duty, peak, and area muscle activities, were calculated using Non-negative matrix factorization. The data comparisons for the assessment of the variables were performed running the two-way ANOVA test in SPSS software.
Results: Athletes showed less duty and the total muscle activity compared with non-athletes during open eyes walking (p < 0.001). Peak muscle activity was higher during open eyes walking compared with closed eyes walking in athletes (p = 0.003). In contrast, duty, area, and the total muscle activity of athletes were lower than those in non-athletes (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that doing exercise training for long-term period can change modules of neuromuscular system in walking pattern. Soccer players have the ability to employ muscle groups with higher peak muscle activity. In contrast, duty, area, and the total muscle activity are lower in soccer players compared with non-athlete individuals and can be an evidence for different decision of neuromuscular system of these groups when doing walking pattern.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Walking
  • Motor Control
  • Exercise training
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