مقایسه تعادل و کارایی سیستم بینایی و سیستم دهلیزی در کنترل پاسچر بین شناگران و فوتبالیست‌ها و غیرورزشکاران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آسیب شناسی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه بهداشت و طب ورزش، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه بهداشت و طب ورزش، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران/گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
تعادل، توانایی حفظ مرکز ثقل در محدوده سطح اتکا تعریف می­شود. با توجه به اهمیت تعادل در فعالیت­ های ورزشی و پیشگیری از آسیب، جای پرسش است که آیا عواملی نظیر شرکت مستمر در فعالیت­ های ورزشی و ماهیت آن رشته ورزشی می­ تواند باعث ایجاد تفاوت در کارایی سیستم­ های حسی درگیر در کنترل پاسچر شود یا خیر. هدف از تحقیق حاضر مقایسه تعادل ایستا، پویا و سهم سیستم­ های حسی درگیر در کنترل پاسچر فوتبالیست­ ها، شناگران و غیرورزشکاران است.
مواد و روش ­ها
به این منظور سه گروه همگن متشکل از30 شناگر، 30 فوتبالیست و 30 غیرورزشکار طبق پروتکل اصلاح ­شده CTSIB با محاسبه مرکز فشار اعمال ­شده بر کف پا بر روی سیستم تعادل­ سنج بایودکس مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. به منظور انجام تجزیه­ و­ تحلیل داده­ های آماری و نیز مقایسه بین گروهی از روش آنالیز واریانس یک­طرفه با SPSS ورژن 24 و سطح معناداری 05/0≤P استفاده گردید.
یافته­ ها
نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد تعادل پویای فوتبالیست­ها و شناگران بهتر از غیرورزشکاران می­باشد. بین تعادل ایستای سه گروه اختلاف معناداری وجود نداشت (P≥0/05). کارایی سیستم حسی بینایی در فوتبالیست ­ها و شناگران بهتر از غیرورزشکاران بود و کارایی سیستم دهلیزی شناگران از فوتبالیست­ها و غیرورزشکاران بهتر بود  (P≤0/05).
نتیجه­ گیری
شرکت مستمر در رشته ورزشی شنا باعث افزایش کارایی سیستم بینایی و دهلیزی و شرکت مستمر در رشته ورزشی فوتبال باعث افزایش کارایی سیستم بینایی و حسی-پیکری شده است. توصیه می­شود شناگران در تمرینات تعادلی خود علاوه بر کارایی سیستم دهلیزی به کارایی سیستم حسی-پیکری و فوتبالیست ­ها نیز در تمرینات تعادلی خود افزایش کارایی سیستم دهلیزی را به علاوه کارایی سیستم حسی-پیکری در نظر داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Balance and Determination of the Efficiency of Involved Sensory Systems among Soccer Players, Swimmers, and Non‌-Athletes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nastaran Talebi 1
  • Hooman Minoonejad 2
  • Shahnaz Shahrbanian 3
  • Mohammad Hani Mansori 1
1 MSc in Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Balance is generally defined as the ability to maintain the body’s center of gravity within its base of support. Both static and dynamic balance require integration of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory inputs to produce a proper efferent response to control the body within its base of support. With regard to the importance of balance in sport activities and prevention of injuries, there is a question whether continuous participation in sport activities and the nature of the sport can cause a difference in efficiency of the involved sensory systems in postural control. The aim of the present study was to compare efficiency of involved sensory systems among swimmers, soccer players, and non­-athletes.   
Materials and Methods:  In the current study, Centers of foot pressure of 3 homogeneous groups, consisting of 30 soccer players, 30 swimmers, and 30 non-athletes were assessed using Biodex balance system according to the modified CTSIB protocol. One-way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test were run in SPSS, version 24, with the p-value set at p≤0.05.
Results:The results showed that soccer players and swimmers had better dynamic balance compared with non-athletes. There was no significant difference among static balance of the three groups. Also, we found that soccer players and swimmers had better visual system efficiency compared with non-athletes. The soccer players had higher somatosensory system compared with non-athletes and the swimmers had the highest vestibular system efficiency.
Conclusion: According to the results,it seems that swimming as a sport activity can enhance the efficiency of visual and vestibular systems and playing soccer can enhance the efficiency of visual and somatosensory systems. Then, it is advised that swimmers should pay attention to somatosensory system efficiency in addition to vestibular system efficiency and soccer players should consider enhancing vestibular system efficiency beside somatosensory system efficiency in their balance training.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Balance
  • sensory systems
  • swimming
  • Soccer
  • non-athlete
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