تاثیر تمرینات کنسول بازی نینتندو 2 بر حافظه کاری فضایی و مهارت های ادراکی-حرکتی کودکان ۸-۶ سال دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی (DCD)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد رفتارحرکتی، دانشگاه آزاد واحد علوم تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار رفتارحرکتی پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
کودکان دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی در معرض خطر بیشتری از اختلالات جسمی و روانی اجتماعی نسبت به کودکان معمولی هستند؛ لذا این مسئله بسیار مهم است که به­موقع و به طور موثر در معرض مداخلات درمانی و پیشگیرانه جهت بهبود هماهنگی حرکتی قرار گیرند. هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی تاثیر شرکت در ۱۲ جلسه تمرینات کنسول بازی نینتندو بر حافظه کاری فضایی و مهارت­های ادراکی-حرکتی (هماهنگی چشم و دست) کودکان ۸-۶ سال دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی بود.
 مواد و روش­ ها
تحقیق حاضر در یک طرح تحقیق پیش ­آزمون-پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل به اجرا درآمده است. به منظور انجام تحقیق حاضر 20 دانش‌آموز دختر 8-6 دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی که از طریق تکمیل سیاهه اختلال هماهنگی رشدی (DCD-Q) توسط والدین و شرکت افراد مشکوک به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی در آزمون MABC-2 شناسایی شده بودند، به عنوان نمونه تحقیق انتخاب شدند. پس از انتخاب نمونه تحقیق، افراد همگی در مرحله پیش‌آزمون در دو آزمون فراستینگ (هماهنگی چشم و دست) و حافظه کاری فضایی N-Back شرکت کردند و نمرات ثبت شد. سپس افراد به صورت تصادفی به دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل تقسیم شدند؛ گروه آزمایش به مدت 12 جلسه و هر جلسه 20 دقیقه به بازی با کنسول نینتندو (بازی تنیس خاکی) پرداختند، اما گروه کنترل در هیچ­گونه تمرینی شرکت نکردند. پس از پایان دوره تمرین گروه آزمایش افراد هر دو گروه در مرحله پس‌آزمون که مشابه با پیش­آزمون اجرا شد، شرکت کردند. پس از اطمینان یافتن از نرمال بودن توزیع داده‌ها از طریق آزمون کولموگروف–اسمیرنوف، جهت بررسی فرضیه‌های تحقیق از آزمون تحلیل واریانس با اندازه‌گیری­های مکرر استفاده شد و به منظور بررسی دقیق محل اختلاف‌ها از آزمون t وابسته استفاده شد.
یافته­ ها
نتایج آزمون t وابسته نشان داد که بین نمرات کسب­ شده در پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون در گروه استفاده از کنسول بازی نینتندو تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود دارد (P=0/001 ،df=9 ،t=12/10)؛ به نحوی که افراد در این گروه در مرحله پس‌آزمون عملکرد بهتری در آزمون هماهنگی چشم و دست داشتند، در مقابل نتایج آزمون t وابسته نشان داد که بین نمرات کسب­شده در پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون در گروه کنترل تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود ندارد (P=0/557 ،df=9 ،t=0/61)؛. بنابراین مشخص است که استفاده از کنسول بازی نینتندو هماهنگی چشم و دست کودکان دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی را بهبود بخشیده است. همچنین نتایج آزمون t وابسته نشان داد که بین نمرات کسب­شده در پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون در گروه استفاده از کنسول بازی نینتندو تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود دارد ((P=0/001 ،df=9 ،t=10/58)؛؛ به نحوی که افراد در این گروه در مرحله پس‌آزمون نمرات بهتری در آزمون حافظه کاری فضایی نسبت به پیش‌آزمون کسب کردند. در مقابل نتایج آزمون t وابسته نشان داد که بین نمرات کسب­شده در پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون در گروه کنترل تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود ندارد (P=1/00 ،df=9 ،t=0/01).
نتیجه­ گیری
نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که استفاده از کنسول بازی نینتندو منجر به بهبود هماهنگی چشم و دست و حافظه کاری فضایی کودکان دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Nintendo ii Trainings on Spatial Working Memory and Cognitive- Motor Skills of 6-8 years Old Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arezou sadat Johari 1
  • Saleh Rafiee 2
1 MSc in Motor Behavior, Islamic Azad University, Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD, Assistant Professor in Motor Behavior, Institute of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Children with developmental coordination disorder are at greater risk of physical and mental disorders than regular children, so it is important to timely and effectively undergo preventive and therapeutic interventions to improve motor coordination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of attending 12 sessions of Nintendo game console training on spatial working memory and perceptual-motor skills (eyebrows-hand coordination) in 6-8 year-old children with developmental coordination disorder.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in a pretest-posttest research design with control group. For the purpose of the present study, 20 female students with developmental coordination disorder (DCD-Q), identified by parents and those with suspected developmental coordination disorder, were included in the MABC-2 test. After selecting the research sample, all partcipants in pre-test phase participated in two tests of frosting (eye-hand coordination) and N-Back spatial working memory and scores were recorded. Then, they were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group played the Nintendo console for 12 sessions, each for 20 minutes, but the control group did not participate in any training. After the training, both groups participated in the post-test, which was similar to the pre-test. After making sure that the distribution of data was normal using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, analysis of variance with repeated measures was run to test the research hypotheses and dependent t-test was used to examine the exact location of differences.
Results: The results of dependent t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the scores obtained in the pre-test and post-test in the Nintendo game console group (p = 0.001, df = 9, t = 12.10). In post-test, they performed better on eye and hand coordination test, while the results of dependent t-test showed no significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores in the control group (p = 0.555, df = 9, 61.61). 0 t =). So, it is obvious that using the Nintendo game console has improved eye-hand coordination for children with developmental coordination disorder. Also, the dependent t-test results showed that there was a significant difference between the scores obtained in the pre-test and post-test in the Nintendo game console group (p = 0.001, df = 9, t = 10.58). The posttest scores were better in the spatial working memory test compared to the pre-test score, while the dependent t-test results showed that there was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in the control group (p = 0.009, 9 df =, 0.01 t =).
Conclusion: The results showed that using the Nintendo game console has led to improved spatial working memory in children with developmental coordination disorder.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive-Motor skills
  • spatial working memory
  • active computer game
  • Nintendo game console
  • Development coordinations Disorder
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