تاثیر تمرینات ریتمیک همراه با موسیقی بر رشد مهارت‌های حرکتی درشت و ادراک بینایی کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی آموزش پذیر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه رفتارحرکتی. دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناس ارشد رفتارحرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
افراد کم‌توان ذهنی به دلیل اختلال در یکپارچگی اطلاعات حسی و حرکتی، در آزمون‌های ادراکی-حرکتی نمره‌های کمتری نسبت به افراد عادی دریافت می‌کنند و وضعیت تعادل آنها بی‌ثبات‌تر از افراد سالم است. متخصصان نیز برای کودکانی که نقص‌های ادراکی-حرکتی دارند، برنامه‌هایی را توصیه می‌کنند که ساختاری منسجم داشته و با نیازها و مشکلات آنها متناسب باشد. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر تمرینات ریتمیک همراه با موسیقی بر رشد مهارت‌های حرکتی درشت و ادراک بینایی کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی آموزش­‌پذیر بود.
مواد و روش­ ها
در پژوهش حاضر از روش نیمه ­تجربی با طرح پیش ­آزمون و پس ­آزمون با دو گروه تجربی و کنترل استفاده شد. نمونه آماری تحقیق نیز 30 نفر از کودکان کم‌ توان ذهنی آموزش‌پذیر با رده سنی 7 تا 11 سال (15 نفر گروه تجربی و 15 نفر گروه کنترل) بودند. برای سنجش رشد مهارت‌های حرکتی درشت، از آزمون رشد مهارت‌های حرکتی درشت اولریخ و به منظور ارزیابی ادراک بینایی، از آزمون ادراک بینایی بنتون استفاده شد. به منظور تجزیه­ و­ تحلیل داده‌ها، از آزمون تحلیل واریانس مدل ترکیبی 2 در 2 در سطح معناداری 0/05 جهت بررسی تفاوت‌های دو گروه در پیش آزمون و پس ­آزمون استفاده شد.
یافته ­ها
یافته‌ها نشان داد که گروه تجربی (تمرینات ریتمیک همراه با موسیقی) بر رشد مهارت‌های حرکتی درشت (0/024=P) و ادراک بینایی (0/049=P) کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی آموزش ­پذیر تأثیر مثبت و معناداری داشت.
نتیجه­ گیری
به نظر می‌رسد که تمرینات ریتمیک همراه با موسیقی به احتمال باعث بهبود مهارت‌های حرکتی درشت و ادراک بینایی کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی آموزش­ پذیر می‌شود؛ لذا استفاده از این نوع تمرینات برای کودکان در مراکز توانبخشی توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Rhythmic Exercises with Music on the Gross Motor Skills Development and Visual Perception among Educable Mentally Retarded Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Fathirezaie 1
  • Zahra Ramezani 2
  • Kosar Abbaspour 2
  • Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani 1
1 PhD, Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 MSc, Department of motor behavior, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: People with intellectual disabilities receive lower scores on cognitive-motor tests compared with normal people due to impaired integration of sensory and motor information, and their balance status is more unstable than healthy individuals. Specialists also recommend programs for children with cognitive-motor deficits that are consistent in structure and tailored to their needs and problems. So, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of rhythmic exercises with music on the gross motor skills development and visual perception among educable mentally retarded children.
Materials and Methods: A semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and experimental and control groups was conducted. The research sample included 30 educable mentally retarded students, aged 7-11 years old (15 in experimental group and 15 in control group). To evaluate gross motor skills, Test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2) was used and Benton test was used for the assessment of visual perception. In order to analyze the data, the mix ANOVA (2×2) was used at the significance level of 0.05 to examine the differences between the two groups between the pre-test and post-test.
Results: The results of mix analysis of variance showed that rhythmic exercises with music (experimental group) had positive and significant effects on gross motor skills development (P = 0.24) and visual perception (P = 0.049) among educable mentally retarded children.
Conclusion: According to the results, rhythmic exercises with music may improve gross motor skills and visual perception of children with educable mentally retarded, so it is better to use these exercises for this children in rehabilitation centers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rhythmic exercises
  • music
  • gross motor skills
  • Visual perception
  • Mentally retarded children
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