مقایسه اثر چهار و شش هفته تمرینات عصبی-عضلانی بر بهبود راستای زانوی دانشجویان پسر در هنگام فرود

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد تربیت بدنی، گروه تربیت بدنی عمومی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

2 استادیار آسیب شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، گروه تربیت بدنی عمومی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

3 دانشیار بیومکانیک ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی عمومی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
هدف از تحقیق حاضر مقایسه اثر چهار و شش هفته تمرینات عصبی‌-عضلانی بر راستای زانوی دانشجویان پسر در هنگام فرود می‌باشد.
مواد و روش­ ها
در تحقیق حاضر 36 نفر از دانشجویان پسر دوره کارشناسی دانشگاه علمی کاربردی مشهد انتخاب شدند و به طور تصادفی در سه گروه چهار هفته‌ای (شش جلسه در هفته)، شش هفته‌ای (چهار جلسه در هفته) تمرینات عصبی‌-عضلانی و کنترل قرار گرفتند. زاویه فلکشن زانو در لحظه اولین تماس پا با زمین و اوج فلکشن زانو در وضعیت‌های فرود با هر دو پا، پای برتر و غیربرتر در اجرای حرکت پرش-فرود با دو دوربین تصویربرداری و سپس محاسبه شد.
یافته­ ها
یافته­ ها نشان داد تمرینات عصبی-عضلانی در هر دو گروه چهار و شش هفته نسبت به گروه کنترل با اندازه اثر بسیار قوی در لحظه اولین تماس پا با زمین و در اوج فلکشن زانو در همه وضعیت‌های فرود افزایش معنی­ داری داشته است. همچنین در مقایسه بین دو گروه، زاویه فلکشن زانو در گروه چهار هفته‌ای نسبت به گروه شش هفته‌ای تمرینات عصبی-‌عضلانی در لحظه اوج فلکشن زانو در همه وضعیت‌های فرود و در لحظه اولین تماس پا با زمین در وضعیت  فرود با پای غیربرتر نیز افزایش معنی­ داری داشته است. اگرچه در لحظه اولین تماس پا با زمین در وضعیت فرود با هر دوپا و فرود با پای برتر تفاوت معنی­ داری مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه­ گیری
به نظر می‌رسد تمرینات عصبی‌-عضلانی در هر دو گروه چهار و شش هفته تمرینات عصبی‌-عضلانی نسبت به گروه کنترل با اندازه اثر بسیار قوی در لحظه اولین تماس پا با زمین و در اوج فلکشن زانو در همه وضعیت‌های فرود افزایش معنی­داری داشته است. همچنین در مقایسه بین دو گروه، زاویه فلکشن زانو در گروه چهار هفته‌ای نسبت به گروه شش هفته‌ای تمرینات عصبی‌-عضلانی در لحظه اوج فلکشن زانو در همه وضعیت‌های فرود و در لحظه اولین تماس پا با زمین در وضعیت فرود با پای غیربرتر نیز افزایش معنی­داری داشته است. اگرچه در لحظه اولین تماس پا با زمین در وضعیت فرود با هر دوپا و فرود با پای برتر تفاوت معنی­ داری مشاهده نشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the Effects of Four and Six Weeks of Neuromuscular Training on Knee Alignment in Male Students during Landing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vahid Siamaki Gharyehsafa 1
  • Mohammadreza Mohammadi 2
  • Mohsen Damavandi 3
1 Master’s student in Physical Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University. Sabzevar, Iran
2 PhD, Assistant Professor of Sport Injury and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University. Sabzevar, Iran
3 PhD, Associate Professor of Sport Biomechanics, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University. Sabzevar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of four and six weeks of neuromuscular exercises on male knee alignment during landing.
Materials and Methods: A total of 36 male students of Applied-Science University of Mashhad were selected and divided into three groups (four weeks of neuromuscular training, six weeks of neuromuscular, and control). The kinematics of volunteers' knees were measured using the SKILL SPECTOR software in running the jump-landing motion.
Results: The results revealed that neuromuscular training in both groups of four weeks and six weeks showed a significant increase in knee flexion angle in the sagittal plane in three landing situations with both legs, upper legs, and non-superior feet (P<0.05). There was also a significant difference between the two groups of four weeks and six weeks of neuromuscular training in the moment of peak knee flexion and it was quite favorable for the group of four weeks (P<0.05). Also, at the moment of landing, there was a significant difference between the two groups of four and six weeks of practice in landing conditions with non-premium foot (P<0.05). However, at the moment of landing between the two groups, no significant difference was observed in the landing status of both sides and landing with the upper leg (P>0.05).
Conclusion: According to the findings, the current study showed that four weeks of neuromuscular training (24 sessions) improved the alignment of lower limb at sagittal level and increased knee bending angles in hop-landing with high effect size at the level of six weeks of training. Therefore, this program can be used as a training model for preventing injuries due to inappropriate knee orientation, especially ligamental injuries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neuromuscular training
  • Knee alignment
  • Sagittal Plane
  1. Lohmander L, Englund P, Dahl L, Roos E. The long-term consequence of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injuries osteoarthritis. Am J Sports Med 2007; 35(10): 1756-69.##
  2. Myklebust G, Bahr R. Return to play guidelines after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39(3): 127-31. ##
  3. Oiestad B, Holm I, Engebretsen L, Risberg M. The association between radiographic knee osteoarthritis and knee symptoms, function and quality of life 10-15 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Br J Sports Med 2011; 45(7): 583-8. ##
  4. Myklebust G, Maehlum S, Engebretsen L, Strand T, et al. Registration of cruciate ligament injuries in Norwegian top level team handball. A prospective study covering two seasons. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1997; 7(5): 289-92. ##
  5. Myklebust G, Maehlum S, Holm I, Bahr R. A prospective cohort study of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in elite Norwegian team handball. Scand J Med Sports 1998; 8(3): 149-53. ##
  6. Gagnier J, Morgenstern H, Chess L. Interventions designed to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries in adolescents and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med 2013; 41(8): 1952-62. ##
  7. Moul JL. Differences in selected predictors of anterior cruciate ligament tears between male and female NCAA Division I collegiate basketball players. J Athl Train 1998; 33: 118-121. ##
  8. Myer GD, Sugimoto D, Thomas S, Hewett TE. The influence of age on the effectiveness of neuromuscular training to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: a meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med 2013; 41(1): 203-15. ##
  9. Garrett C, Brian C. A 4-week neuromuscular training program and gait patterns at the ankle joint. Athl Train 2007; 42(1): 51-59. ##
  10. Sell T, Ferris C, Abt J, Tsai Y, et al. The effect of direction and reaction on the neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristics of the knee during tasks that simulate the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanism. Am J Sports Med 2006; 34(1): 43-54. ##
  11. Walsh M, Boling M, McGrath M, Blackburn J, et al. Lower Extremity Muscle Activation and Knee Flexion during a Jump-Landing Task. Athl Train 2012; 47(4): 406-13. ##
  12. Boden B, Dean G, Feagin J, Garrett J. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Orthopedics 2000; 23(6): 573-8. ##
  13. Sakane M, Livesay GA, Fox RJ, Rudy TW, et al. Relative contribution of the ACL, MCL, and bony contact to the anterior stability of the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 1999; 7: 93-97. ##
  14. Myer G, Ford K, Brent J, Hewett T. Differential neuromuscular training effects on ACL injury risk factors in high-risk versus low-risk athletes. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2007; 8: 39-45. ##
  15. Krosshaug T, Nakamae A, Boden BP, Engebretsen L, et al. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball: Video analysis of 39 cases. Am J Sports Med 2007; 35(3): 359–367. ##
  16. Hewett T, Myer G, Ford K. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: part 1, mechanisms and risk factors. Am J Sports Med 2006; 34(2): 299-311. ##
  17. Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Braekken I, Skjolberg A, et al. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female teamhandball players: A prospective intervention study over three seasons. Clin J Sport Med 2003; 13: 71–78. ##
  18. Holm I, Fosdahl M, Friis A, Risberg M, et al. Effect of neuromuscular training on proprioception, balance, muscle strength, and lower limb function in female team handball players. Clin J Sport Med 2004; 14: 88–94. ##
  19. Hrysomallis C. Relationship between balance ability, training and Sports injury risk. Sports Med 2007; 37(6): 547–556. ##
  20. Gagnier JJ, Morgenstern H, Chess L. Interventions designed to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries in adolescents and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med 2013; 41(8): 1952-62. ##
  21. Myer G, Sugimoto D, Thomas S, Hewett T. The influence of age on the effectiveness of neuromuscular training to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: a meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med 2013; 41(1): 203-15. ##
  22. Taylor J, Waxman J, Richter S, Shultz S. Evaluation of the effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programme training components: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2015; 49(2): 79-87. ##
  23. Pánics G, Tállay A, Pavlik A, Berkes I. Effect of proprioception training on knee joint position sense in female team handball players. Br J Sports Med 2008; 42(6): 472–476. ##
  24. Mandelbaum B, Silvers H, Watanabe D, Knarr J, et al. Effectiveness of a neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program in preventing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med 2005; 33(7): 1003–1010. ##
  25. Brown CN, Yu B, Kirkendall DT, Garrett WE. Effects of increased body mass index on lower extremity motion patterns in a stop-jump task. J Athl Train 2005; 42: S26. ##
  26. Christine D, Pollard P, Susan MP, Susumu OP, et al. The Influence of In-Season Injury Prevention Training on Lower-Extremity Kinematics during Landing in Female Soccer Players. Clin J Sport Med 2006; 16(3): 223-7. ##
  27. Cote K, Brunet E. Effect of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability. J Athl Train 2005; 40(1): 41-46. ##
  28. Grandstrand S, Pfeiffer R, Sabick M. The effects of a commercially available warm up Program on landing mechanics in female youth soccer Players. J Strength Cond Res 2006; 20(2): 331–335. ##
  29. Herman DC, Onate JA, Weinhold PS. The effects of feedback with and without strength training on lower extremity biomechanics. Am J SPorts Med 2009; 37(7): 264-272. ##
  30. Markolf K, Gorek J, Kabo J, Shapiro M. Direct measurement of resultant forcesin the anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990; 72: 557-567. ##
  31. Timothy E, Amanda L, Thomas A, Nance A, et al. Plyometric Training in Female Athletes Decreased Impact Forces and Increased Hamstring Torques. Am J Sports Med 1996; 47(1): 83-90. ##
  32. Tsang K, Dipasquale A. Improving the strength ratio in women using Plyomietric exercises. J Strength Cond Res 2011; 25(10): 2740–2745. ##
  33. Weiser S, Nordin M, Andersson G, Pope M. Musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace: principles and practice. Principles and Practice 2007: 273-274. ##
  34. Wilderman D, Ross S, Padua D. Thigh muscle activity, knee motion, and imPact force during sidesteP Pivoting in agility-trained female basketball Players. J Athl Train 2009; 44(1): 14–25. ##
  35. Nakao S, Komatsu K, Sakai W, Kashihara M, et al. Gait and posture assessments of a patient treated with deep brain stimulation in dystonia using three-dimensional motion analysis systems. The Journal of Medical Investigation 2011; 58: 264-272. ##
  36. Lee SY, Hertel J. Arch height and maximum rearfoot eversion during jogging in 2 static neutral positions. J Athl Train 2012; 47(1): 83-90. ##
  37. DiCesare CA, Bates NA, Myer GD, Hewett TE. The validity of 2-dimensional measurement of trunk angle during dynamic tasks. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2014; 9(4): 420-427. ##
  38. Geremia JM, Baroni BM, Bobbert MF, Bini RR, et al. Effects of high loading by eccentric triceps surae training on Achilles tendon properties in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2018; 118(8): 1725–1736. ##
  39. Mohammadi MR, Alizadeh MH, Ebrahimi E, Shirzad E. The influence of a neuromuscular exercise program on lower limb function and knee 3D alignment of handball male players in single leg landing. Studies in Sport Medicine 2013; 16: 13-32. [In Persian] ##
  40. Barendrecht M, Lezeman HCA, Duysens J, Smits-Engelsman BCM. Neuromuscular training improves knee kinematics, in particular in valgus aligned adolescent team handball players of both sexes. J Strength Cond Res 2011; 25(3): 575-584. ##
  41. Frank R, Noyes D, Westin B, West J. The Drop-Jump Screening Test: Difference in Lower Limb Control by Gender and Effect of Neuromuscular Training in Female Athletes. Am J Sports Med 2005; 33(2): 583-594. ##
  42. Jacob ME, Ni P, Leritz E, Driver J, et al. Multi-morbidity and environmental factors affecting gate and function: Multi-morbidity patterns and disablement severity among mobility limited older adults. Innovation in Aging 2017; 1(suppl_1): 82-82. ##
  43. Wang D, Vito GD, Ditroilo M, Delahunt E. Neuromuscular training effects on the stiffness properties of the knee joint and landing biomechanics of young female recreational athletes. Br J Sports Med 2017; 51(4): 405. ##
  44. Chappell JD, Limpisvasti O. Effect of a neuromuscular training program on the kinetics and kinematics of jumping tasks. Am J Sports Med 2008; 36(6): 1081-1086. ##
  45. Bell D, Oates D, Clark M, Padua D. Two- and 3-dimensional knee valgus are reduced after an exercise intervention in young adults with demonstrable valgus during squatting. J Athl Train 2013; 48(4): 442-9. ##
  46. Olson T, Chebny C, Willson J, Kernozek T, et al. Comparison of 2D and 3D kinematic changes during a single leg step down following neuromuscular training. Phys Ther Sport 2011; 12(2): 93-9. ##
  47. Zebis M, Bencke J, Andersen L. The effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint motor control during side cutting in female elite soccer and handball Players. Clin J Sport Med 2008; 18(4): 329–337. ##