اثر تمرینات منتخب فال‌پروف بر تعادل ایستا و پویای سالمندان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استاد گروه آسیب شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
اختلال تعادل به‌عنوان اصلی­ترین عامل سقوط در سالمندان شناخته‌ شده است. مهم‌ترین هدف بازتوانی زمانی که سیستم تعادلی دچار ضعف می‌شود، رفع این اختلال است. از این رو درمانگران و متخصصین علوم ورزشی تمرینات ورزشی را برای تسهیل و بهبود وضعیت تعادل به کار می‌گیرند. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی اثر هشت هفته برنامه تمرینی منتخب فال­ پروف بر تعادل ایستا و پویای سالمندان می‌باشد.
مواد و روش ­ها
آزمودنی‌ها شامل 24 سالمند 60 تا 74 ساله بودند که به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند و به­صورت تصادفی در دو گروه قرار گرفتند. گروه تجربی برای 8 هفته تمرینات فال‌پروف را انجام داد. گروه کنترل برنامه تمرینی خاصی نداشت. برای ارزیابی تعادل ایستا و پویا به­ترتیب از آزمون شارپرندرومبرگ (با چشم‌ باز و بسته) و آزمون زمان برخاستن و رفتن استفاده شد. از آزمون  tزوجی برای مقایسه درون­گروهی و از آزمون تحلیل کوواریانس برای مقایسه بین گروهی استفاده شد. تحلیل آماری داده‌ها با استفاده از نسخه 25 نرم‌افزار SPSS در سطح معناداری 0/05 α=انجام شد.
یافته ­ها
نتایج آزمون t زوجی نشان داد که نمرات تعادل ایستا با چشم ‌باز (0/000=P) و بسته (0/001=P) و تعادل پویای (0/001=P) گروه تجربی بعد از برنامه تمرینی بهبود یافته بود، درحالی‌که این نمرات در گروه کنترل بهبودی را نشان نداد. نتایج ازمون تحلیل کوواریانس نشان داد دو گروه تجربی و کنترل بعد از پایان تمرینات در شاخص‌های تعادل ایستا (با چشم باز و بسته) و پویا تفاوت معناداری داشتند.
نتیجه ­گیری
به نظر می­رسد برنامه تمرینی فال­پروف که چندین فاکتور کنترل پاسچر را دربرمی­گیرد، یک روش تمرینی موثر برای بهبود تعادل در سالمندان است؛ بنابراین با توجه به اثربخشی مشاهده­شده در مطالعه حاضر از این تمرینات و نیز عدم نیاز به تجهیزات پرهزینه پیشنهاد می‌شود که برای توانبخشی سالمندان در خانه و به­ویژه در مراکز نگهداری سالمندان استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Selected Fallproof Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in the Elderly

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Khazanin 1
  • Hassan Daneshmandi 2
1 MSc Student in Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 PhD, Professor, Department of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Balance disorder has been recognized as a leading cause of falls in the elderly. The most important aim of rehabilitation when balance system is weakened is to resolve this disorder. Therefore, sports scientists and therapists utilize exercise trainings to facilitate and improve balance condition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of selected Fallproof exercises on static and dynamic balance in the elderly.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 24 elderly people, aged 60-74 years, were selected via convenient sampling method and then randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in the FallProof program for eight weeks, while the control group did not participate in any special program. The static and dynamic balances were evaluated using Sharpendromberg (with open and closed eyes) and Timed Up and Go tests, respectively.
Results: The results of Paired t-test showed that the opened-eye static balance scores (P = 0.001) and closed-eye dynamic balance (P 0.001) had improved in the experimental group following the training program, while no significant differences were observed in the control group. The results of one-way covariance analysis showed that the two groups had significant differences in static (opened and closed eye) and dynamic balance indices after training.
Conclusion: It seems that Fallproof training program, which incorporates several components of postural control, is an effective training method in improving balance in the elderly. Therefore, due to its effectiveness and because it does not need costly equipment, the chosen Fallproof training program is recommended to be used as a rehabilitation program for the elderly at home, and especially in nursing homes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fallproof exercise
  • Balance
  • Elderly
1. Salminen M, Vahlberg T, Sihvonen S, Sjösten N, Piirtola M, Isoaho R, et al. Effects of risk-based  multifactorial fall prevention on postural balance in the community-dwelling aged: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2009;48(1):22-7.##

2. Safarpour M, Hosseini S R, Zeraati H, Bijani A, Fotouhi A. Balance in the elderly and its determinants. Tehran Univ Med J. 2018; 76 (5) :346-353 [In Persian]. ##

3. Melzer I, Benjuya N, KaPlanski J. Postural stability in the elderly a comParison between fallers and non-fallers. Age and ageing. 2004;33(6):602-7. ##

4.Tuunainen E, Rasku J, Jäntti P, Pyykkö I. Risk factors of falls in community dwelling active elderly. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2014;41(1):10-6.  ##

5. Patterson SL, Rodgers MM, Macko RF, Forrester Lw. Effect of treadmill exercise training on spatialand temporal gait parameters in subjects with chronic stork: A preliminary report. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008; 45(2): 221-228##

6. Berg K, Wood-Dauphine S, Williams J, Gayton D. Measuring balance in the elderly: preliminary development of an instrument. Physiotherapy Canada. 1989;41(6):304-11. ##

7. Horak FB. Clinical assessment of balance disorders. Gait Posture 1997; 6(1):76-84. ##

8. Manini T, Marko M, VavArnam, T. Cook, S. Fernhall, B. Burke, J. Ploutz-Snyder, L. Efficacy of resistance and task-specefic exercise in older adults who modify tasks of everyday life. J Gerontol, ( 2007(; 62A6: 616-623. ##

9.Schmid A A, Marieke VP, & David MK.Effect of a 12-week yoga intervention on fear of falling and balance in older adults: a pilot study." Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 2010; 91(4): 576-583.‏ ##

10. Zhao Y, Wang Y. Tai Chi as an intervention to reduce falls and improve balance function in the elderly: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chinese nursing research, 2016; 3(1): 28-33.‏ ##

11. Debra J. Rose, Reducing the Risk of Falls Among Older Adults:The Fallproof Balance and Mobility Program American College of Sports Medicine. (2011); 10(3) :151-156. ##

12. Trueblood P R, Tyner T, Wubenhorst  N, Bradley J, cummings UL & Silva K. The effects of an eight week Fallproof! TM class comparing high and low functioning participants. Physical Therapy Japan, 2007; 34(8), 316-327.‏ ##

13. Ward, Kelly. Effectiveness of FallProof home-based DVD program in improving balance, select functional fitness parameters, and balance-related confidence among community-dwelling older adults who have been identified as moderate to high risk of falls. ]PhDThesis.[ California state University: Therapeutic Aging; 2011. ##

14. Debra J. Rose. Fallproof A Comprehensive Balance and Mobility Training Program 2nd ed.united state: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2010. ##

15. Foroughan M, Jafari Z, Shirin Bayan P, Ghaemmagham Farahani Z, Rahgozar M. Standardization of mini mental status examination in elderly people in Tehran. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2006;10(2):29-37. ##

16. Trzepacz, PT, Hochstetler H, Wang, S., et al. “Relationship between the montreal cognitive assessment and mini-mental state examination for assessment of mild cognitive impairment in older adults. BMC Geriatric, 2015. 15: PP: 107. ##

17. Pohl PS, Gras LZ, Bosch PR, Ganley KJ, Mayer J. Dual Task Timed Up-and-Go for Older Adults With and Without Balance Deficits. Physical & Occupational Therapy In Geriatrics. (2019) Jul 19:1-13. ##

18. Saripinarli B, & Inal HS.The Effect of Dual task training on static and dynamic balance of older adults having institutional living: Randomized Trial. Turkish Journal of Geriatrics/Türk Geriatri Dergisi, 2018; 21(4).

19. Anderson MA. Return to competition. In zachazewski, Magee, D.I: Athletic injuries and rehabilitation, First ed. WB Sunders company, New york, 1996; p: 229-261. ##

20. Arghavani H, Zolaktaf, V, Lengan Nejadian, S. Elderly, Consequences of Falling, and Evolutionary Exercises: A Review. The Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2018; 7(4): 268-277. ##

21.Tomicki Camila, et al. Effect of physical exercise program on the balance and risk of falls of institutionalized elderly persons: a randomized clinical trial. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 2016, 19(3): 473-482. ##

22. Lee, Y., Choi, W., Lee, K., Song, C., & Lee, S. Virtual reality training with three-dimensional video games improves postural balance and lower extremity strength in community-dwelling older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity, 2017 25(4) 621-627.‏ ##

23. Khajavi D, Farokhi A, Jaberi Moghadam AK, Kazemnejad A.Effect of a strength and balance training program on maintaining balance and quality of life in older male adults with fear of fall Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016; 11(2):270-279.‏ [In Persian]. ##

24. khodadadi, M., Rahnama, N., Tayebi, A. Comparison effect of balance training with and without suit therapy on balance and gait in elderly. Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 2018;13(26):191-202.  [In Persian]. ##

25.Rafati A G, Eslami M, Mirdar S. The Effect of a Nine-Weeks Training Program on the Center of Pressure Indicators with Open and Closed Eyes Condition in the Elderly Male. jrehab. 2018; 19 (1):44-53 [In Persian]. ##

26. Kiyani P, Farahpoor N. Evaluation of Performance of the Vestibular Proprioception and Vision Systems on Postural Control of Old Men. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2015; 10 (3):44-53##

27. Horak FB: Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls? Age Ageing 2006, 35(suppl 2):ii7-ii11. ##

28. Zettel JL, McIlroy WE, Maki BE. Can stabilizing features of rapid triggered stepping reactions be modulated to meet environmental constraints? Experimental brain research. 2002 Aug 1;145(3):297-308. ##

29. Woollacott MH, Shumway-Cook A.Changes in posture control across the life span—a systems approach. Physical therapy. 1990 Dec1;70(12):799-807. ##

30. Sibley KM, Beauchamp MK, Van Ooteghem K, Straus SE, Jaglal SB. Using the systems framework for postural control to analyze the components of balance evaluated in standardized balance measures: a scoping review. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2015 Jan 1;96(1):122-32. ##

31. Cao ZB, Maeda A, Shima N, Kurata H, Nishizono H. The effect of a 12-week combined exercise intervention program on physical performance and gait kinematics in community-dwelling elderly women. Journal of physiological anthropology. 2007; 26(3):325-32. ##

32. Tinetti, ME. (2003). Preventing falls in elderly persons. New Engl J Med, 348(1):42-49. ##

33. Carter ND, Kannus P, Khan KM. Exercise in the prevention of falls in older people: a systematic literature review examining the rationale and the evidence. Sports Med) . 2001( 31(6): 427-38. ##

34. Park, Jh. The effects of eyeball exercise on balance ability and falls efficacy of the elderly who have experienced a fall: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 2017; 68: 181-185.‏review examining the rationale and the evidence. Sports Med) . 2001( 31(6): 427-38. ##

35. Bjerk, Maria, et al. Effects of a falls prevention exercise programme on health-related quality of life in older home care recipients: a randomised controlled trial. Age and ageing, 2019; 48.(2): 213-219.‏ ##

36. Wati DN, Sahar J, Rekawati E. Effectiveness of Lafiska exercise on risk of fall, balance, and health status in the elderly. Enfermeria clinica. 2018 Feb 1;28:337-342##

37. Robinovitch SN, Feldman F, Yang Y, Schonnop R, Leung PM, Sarraf T, Sims-Gould J, Loughin M. Video capture of the circumstances of falls in elderly people residing in long-term care: an observational study.The Lancet. 2013 Jan 5;381(9860):47-54. ##

38. Dashti P, Shabani M, Moazami M. Comparison of the effects of two selected exercises of Theraband and Pilates on the balance and strength of lower limb in elderly women. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2015; 18(153):1-9 [In Persian]. ##

39. Yaali R, Naeimi Kia M, Gholami A. Effect of weight transfer training on static and dynamic balance of older women. . 2018; 8 (16):47-59 [In  Persian]. ##

40.de Bruin ed, Murer K. Effect of additional functional exercises on balance in elderly people. Clinical rehabilitation. 2007 Feb;21(2):112-21.  ##