ارزیابی طیف فرکانس نیروی عکس العمل زمین طی راه رفتن بر روی شن و سطح صاف در افراد با پای پرونیت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بیومکانیک ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد بیومکانیک، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 استاد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
طیف فرکانس نیروهای عکس ­العمل زمین طی راه رفتن از اهمیت کلینیکی بالایی برخوردار است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی طیف فرکانس نیروی عکس ­العمل زمین طی راه رفتن بر روی شن و سطح صاف در افراد با پای پرونیت می­ باشد.
مواد و روش ها
29 فرد سالم (14 زن و 15 مرد) با میانگین سنی 4/17±24/00سال، قد 7/92±170/54 سانتی­متر، و وزن 16/68±73/36 کیلوگرم و 30 فرد با پای پرونیت (15 زن و 15 مرد) با میانگین سنی 2/91±23/09 سال، قد 10/85±172/63سانتی­متر، و وزن 11/07±71/09 کیلوگرم داوطلب شرکت در مطالعه حاضر شدند. داده­ های نیروی عکس­ العمل زمین به ­وسیله دستگاه صفحه نیرو برتک (نرخ نمونه­ برداری 1000 هرتز) اندازه­ گیری شد. از آزمون آنالیز واریانس دوسویه با اندازه­ های تکراری برای تحلیل آماری استفاده شد. تمام تحلیل­ ها در سطح معناداری 0/05 انجام شد.
یافته­ ها
اثر تعاملی سطح و گروه بر طیف فرکانس با توان 99/5 درصد نیروی عکس­ العمل زمین در راستای قدامی-خلفی به لحاظ آماری معنادار بود. طیف فرکانس با توان 99/5 درصد در گروه سالم طی راه رفتن بر روی شن در مقایسه با راه رفتن بر روی سطح صاف به­ طور معناداری بالاتر بود. اختلاف معناداری در سایر متغیرها مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه­ گیری
راه رفتن بر روی شن بر طیف فرکانس با توان 99/5 درصد نیروی عکس­العمل زمین در راستای قدامی-خلفی بیشترین اثر را داشت، ولی در مقادیر طیف فرکانس نیروی عکس ­العمل زمین در راستای داخلی-خارجی و در راستای عمودی هیچ­گونه اختلاف معناداری وجود نداشت. به­ طور کلی، راه رفتن بر روی شن در توانبخشی افراد با پای پرونیت می­ تواند مفید باشد. با وجود این، اثبات هرچه بهتر این موضوع نیاز به انجام پژوهش ­های بیشتر دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Frequency Spectrum of Ground Reaction Force during Walking on Sand and Flat Surface in Individuals with Pronated Foot

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amirali Jaafarnejad 1
  • Nasrin Amirzade 2
  • Amin Heseinpour 3
  • Marefat Siahkouhian 4
  • Arefeh Mokhtari Malek Abadi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 MSc of Sport Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardebil, Iran
3 MSc of Sport Biomechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardebil, Iran
4 Professor of Sport Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardebil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Ground reaction force frequency content during walking has clinical importance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency response of ground reaction force during walking on sand and flat surface in people with pronation foot.
Materials and Methods: A total of 29 healthy participants (14 females and 15 males) (mean age: 24.00±4.17 years, height: 170.54±7.92 cm, and weight: 73.36±16.68 kg) and 30 individuals with pronated foot (15 females and 15 males) (mean age: 23.09±2.91 years, height: 172.63±10.85 cm, and weight: 71.09±11.07 kg) volunteered to participate in the current study. Ground reaction force data were recorded using a Bertec force plate (with sampling rate of 1000 Hz). Two ways ANOVA with repeated measure test was used for statistical analysis. Data analyses were performed at the significance level of 0.05.
Results: Interactive effect of surface and group on frequency spectrum with power of 99.5% in anterior-posterior direction was statistically significant. Frequency spectrum with power of 99.5% in the healthy group was significantly higher during walking on sand compared to walking on flat surface. No significant difference was observed in other variables.
Conclusion: Walking on sand had the highest effect on the frequency spectrum with power of 99.5% in the anterior-posterior direction but not in the medio-lateral and vertical directions. Generally, walking on sand is suitable in rehabilitation of pronated feet. However, further study is warranted.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • frequency spectrum
  • ground reaction force
  • Pronated foot
1.             Fabry G. Static, axial, and rotational deformities of the lower extremities in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2010; 169:529-34.##

2.             Dunn J, Link C, Felson D, Crincoli M, Keysor J, McKinlay J. Prevalence of foot and ankle conditions in a multiethnic community sample of older adults. American journal of epidemiology. 2004; 159(5):491-8. ##

3.             Kothari A, Dixon P, Stebbins J, Zavatsky A, Theologis T. The relationship between quality of life and foot function in children with flexible flatfeet. Gait & posture. 2015; 41(3):786-90. ##

4.             Lin C-J, Lai K-A, Kuan T-S, Chou Y-L. Correlating factors and clinical significance of flexible flatfoot in preschool children. Journal of pediatric orthopaedics. 2001; 21(3):378-82. ##

5.             Betsch M, Schneppendahl J, Dor L, Jungbluth P, Grassmann JP, Windolf J, et al. Influence of foot positions on the spine and pelvis. Arthritis care & research. 2011; 63(12):1758-65. ##

6.             Bird AR, Bendrups AP, Payne CB. The effect of foot wedging on electromyographic activity in the erector spinae and gluteus medius muscles during walking. Gait & posture. 2003; 18(2):81-91. ##

7.             Ogon M, Aleksiev AR, Pope MH, Wimmer C, Saltzman CL. Does arch height affect impact loading at the lower back level in running? Foot & ankle international. 1999; 20(4):263-6. ##

8.             Duval K, Lam T, Sanderson D. The mechanical relationship between the rearfoot, pelvis and low-back. Gait & posture. 2010; 32(4):637-40. ##

9.             Tateuchi H, Wada O, Ichihashi N. Effects of calcaneal eversion on three-dimensional kinematics of the hip, pelvis and thorax in unilateral weight bearing. Human movement science. 2011; 30(3):566-73. ##

10.          Miyazaki T, Wada M, Kawahara H, Sato M, Baba H, Shimada S. Dynamic load at baseline can predict radiographic disease progression in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2002; 61(7):617-22. ##

11.          Kendall JC, Bird AR, Azari MF. Foot posture, leg length discrepancy and low back pain–Their relationship and clinical management using foot orthoses–An overview. The Foot. 2014; 24(2):75-80. ##

12.          Kothari A, Dixon P, Stebbins J, Zavatsky A, Theologis T. Are flexible flat feet associated with proximal joint problems in children? Gait & posture. 2016; 45:204-10. ##

13.          Chuckpaiwong B, Nunley JA, Mall NA, Queen RM. The effect of foot type on in-shoe plantar pressure during walking and running. Gait & posture. 2008; 28(3):405-11. ##

14.          Hunt AE, Smith RM. Mechanics and control of the flat versus normal foot during the stance phase of walking. Clinical biomechanics. 2004; 19(4):391-7. ##

15.           Jafarnezhadgero A, Madadi-Shad M, Alavi-Mehr SM, Granacher U. The long-term use of foot orthoses affects walking kinematics and kinetics of children with flexible flat feet: A randomized controlled trial. PloS one. 2018; 13(10):e0205187. ##

16.           Jafarnezhadgero A, Majlesi M, Madadi-Shad M. The effects of low arched feet on lower limb joints moment asymmetry during gait in children: A cross sectional study. The Foot. 2018; 34:63-8. ##

17.          Jafarnezhadgero A, Madadi-Shad M, Esker FS, Robertson D. Do different methods for measuring joint moment asymmetry give the same results? Journal of bodywork and movement therapies. 2018; 22(3):741-6. ##

18.           Jafarnezhadgero AA, Shad MM, Majlesi M. Effect of foot orthoses on the medial longitudinal arch in children with flexible flatfoot deformity: A three-dimensional moment analysis. Gait & posture. 2017; 55:75-80. ##

19.          Eng JJ, Tang P-F. Gait training strategies to optimize walking ability in people with stroke: a synthesis of the evidence. Expert review of neurotherapeutics. 2007; 7(10):1417-36. ##

20. Farahpour N, Jafarnezhad A, Damavandi M, Bakhtiari A, Allard P. Gait ground reaction force characteristics of low back pain patients with pronated foot and able-bodied individuals with and without foot pronation. Journal of biomechanics. 2016; 49(9):1705-10. ##

21.          Stergiou N, Giakas G, Byrne JE, Pomeroy V. Frequency domain characteristics of ground reaction forces during walking of young and elderly females. Clinical Biomechanics. 2002; 17(8):615-7. ##

22.          Giakas G, Baltzopoulos V. Time and frequency domain analysis of ground reaction forces during walking: an investigation of variability and symmetry. Gait & Posture. 1997; 5(3):189-97. ##

23.          White R, Agouris I, Selbie R, Kirkpatrick M. The variability of force platform data in normal and cerebral palsy gait. Clinical biomechanics. 1999; 14(3):185-92. ##

24.          Alavi-Mehr SM, Jafarnezhadgero A, Salari-Esker F, Zago M. Acute effect of foot orthoses on frequency domain of ground reaction forces in male children with flexible flatfeet during walking. The Foot. 2018; 37:77-84. ##

25.          Wu J, Beerse M, Ajisafe T. Frequency domain analysis of ground reaction force in preadolescents with and without Down syndrome. Research in developmental disabilities. 2014; 35(6):1244-51. ##

26.          Gruber AH, Edwards WB, Hamill J, Derrick TR, Boyer KA. A comparison of the ground reaction force frequency content during rearfoot and non-rearfoot running patterns. Gait & posture. 2017; 56:54-9. ##

 27.         Farahpour N, Jafarnezhadgero A, Allard P, Majlesi M. Muscle activity and kinetics of lower limbs during walking in pronated feet individuals with and without low back pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2018; 39:35-41. ##

28.          Yoo B. The effect of carrying a military backpack on a transverse slope and sand surface on lower limb during gait: The University of Utah; 2014. ##

29.          Kim S. Ergonomic analysis of army backpack designs: back and shoulder stresses and their implications: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah; 2014. ##

30.          Wade C, Redfern MS, Andres RO, Breloff SP. Joint kinetics and muscle activity while walking on ballast. Human factors. 2010; 52(5):560-73. ##

31.          Merryweather AS. Lower limb biomechanics of walking on slanted and level railroad ballast. J Biomech. 2008; 52(4): 122-29. ##

32.          Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement: John Wiley & Sons; 2009. ##

33.          White R, Agouris I, Fletcher E. Harmonic analysis of force platform data in normal and cerebral palsy gait. Clinical Biomechanics. 2005; 20(5):508-16. ##

34.          Wurdeman SR, Huisinga JM, Filipi M, Stergiou N. Multiple sclerosis affects the frequency content in the vertical ground reaction forces during walking. Clinical biomechanics. 2011; 26(2):207-12. ##

35.          McGrath D, Judkins TN, Pipinos II, Johanning JM, Myers SA. Peripheral arterial disease affects the frequency response of ground reaction forces during walking. Clinical Biomechanics. 2012; 27(10):1058-63. ##

36.          Crowe A, Schiereck P, de Boer R, Keessen W. Characterization of gait of young adult females by means of body centre of mass oscillations derived from ground reaction forces. Gait & Posture. 1993; 1(1):61-8. ##

37.          Schneider E, Chao E. Fourier analysis of ground reaction forces in normals and patients with knee joint disease. Journal of biomechanics. 1983; 16(8):591-601. ##

38.          Cohen J. A power primer. Psychological bulletin. 1992; 112(1):155. ##

39.          Arastoee M, Zahednezhad S, Arastoee A, Negahban H, Goharpay S. Measurement of ground reaction forces during walking toward the front and rear of the students with flexible flat foot. J Modern Rehabilitation School of Medical Sciences. 2012; 1(5):1-7. ##

40.          Bertani A, Cappello A, Benedetti M, Simoncini L, Catani F. Flat foot functional evaluation using pattern recognition of ground reaction data. Clinical Biomechanics. 1999; 14(7):484-93. ##

41.          Judkins TN, Oleynikov D, Narazaki K, Stergiou N. Robotic surgery and training: electromyographic correlates of robotic laparoscopic training. Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques. 2006; 20(5):824-9. ##