بررسی مقایسه ای درک و تولید نحوی بین کودکان کم توان ذهنی آموزش پذیر و کودکان عادی فارسی زبان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار زبانشناسی، گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان‌وبلوچستان، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری زبانشناسی همگانی، گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان وبلوچستان، ایران

3 دکتری روانشناسی تربیتی، گروه روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید چمران، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
از آنجایی که درک زبان و به­خصوص درک نحوی در رشد زبانی و همچنین رشد آموزشی کودکان تاثیر دارد، پژوهش حاضر به بررسی درک و تولید نحو توسط کودکان کم­ توان ذهنی آموزش­پذیر در مقایسه با کودکان عادی پرداخته است.
مواد و روش ­ها
در پژوهش حاضر، 15 کودک کم­ توان ذهنی با سن تقویمی (13-12 سال) و سن عقلی (9-7 سال) شرکت داشتند. کم ­توان ذهنی بودن این افراد قبلاً با استفاده از آزمون هوش وکسلر ویرایش 4 تایید و بهره­ی هوشی این افراد بین 70-55 اندازه­گیری شده بود. گروه شاهد شامل 15 کودک عادی (9-7 سال) و 15 کودک عادی (13-12 سال) بودند. آزمودنی­ های کم­ توان ذهنی به­ طور تصادفی از مدارس استثنایی و آزمودنی­ های عادی به­ طور تصادفی از مدارس عادی شهرستان جیرفت انتخاب شدند. هر سه گروه از آزمودنی ­ها از نظر زبانی با استفاده از بخش کلامی آزمون هوش وکسلر ویرایش 4 همگن شدند. به منظور جمع­ آوری داده­ ها، از آزمون نحوی با نگاهی به مطالعه ­یBenítez-Burraco, Garayzábal and Cuetos (2016) استفاده شد. این آزمون حاوی 6 خرده ­آزمون بود که با استفاده از روش دو نیمه کردن اسپیرمن-براون هنجاریابی شد. تحلیل داده­ های حاصل از پژوهش با استفاده از آزمون ­های تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیره و آزمون تعقیبی حداقل تفاوت معنادار (LSD)، با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS انجام گرفت.
یافته­ ها
نتایج نهایی تحلیل چندمتغیره نشان داد که بین عملکرد کلی سه گروه در درک و تولید نحو (قواعد گروهی پایه، نشانگر فعل کمکی و ساختار پایه­ ای گروه تصریف، ظرفیت فعل، محدودیت­ های زیرمقوله ­ای نحوی درون­ گروه فعلی، تولید بندهای متمم اسمی و بند افزوده) تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد (0/05<P).
نتیجه­ گیری
نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که کودکان کم­توان ذهنی به­ طور کلی عملکرد ضعیف­تری در درک و تولید نحوی نسبت به کودکان کم­توان ذهنی با سن عقلی و سن تقویمی مشابه دارند. همچنین، جنسیت تاثیری در درک و تولید نحو در هیچ­کدام از گروه ­ها نداشت. در نهایت، افرادی که در بخش آموزشی کودکان کم­توان ذهنی مشغول هستند، می ­توانند از نتایج پژوهش حاضر استفاده کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of Syntactic Perception and Production between Persian-speaking Educable Children with Intellectual Disability and Typically Developing Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Ali Ahangar 1
  • Mohaddeseh Soltaninejad 2
  • Ali Dareh Kordi 3
1 Associate Professor of Linguistics, English Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
2 PhD Candidate in Linguistics, English Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
3 PhD in Education Psychology, Education Psychology Department, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Shahid Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: As perception of language and particularly syntactic perception has a significant effect on language and learning development, the present study aimed at comparing syntactic perception and production between educable children with ID and TD children.
Materials and Methods: In the current causal-comparative study, 15 children with intellectual disabilities of chronological age 12-13 and mental age 7-9 were included. Intellectual disabilities of these children were confirmed earlier using Wechsler intelligence test, edition 4, and their IQ were measured to be between 55-70. The control group included 15 typically developing children of age 7-9 years and 15 typically developing children aged 12-13 years. Children with intellectual disabilities were selected from exceptional schools and typically developing children from normal schools of Jiroft city via available sampling method. All the three groups were homogenized in language ability using the verbal section of the Wechsler Intelligence Test, edition 4. The research data was gathered by adapting the study of Benítez-Burraco, Garayzábal, and Cuetos (2016). This test included six subtests that standardized by the Spearman-Brown. The data were then analyzed using multivariate analysis and SLD in SPSS.
Results: There was a significant difference between the overall performances of the three groups in syntactic perception and production (basic phrase rules, auxiliary markers and basic structure of the inflectional phrase, verbal valency, syntactic subcategory constraints within the verbal phrase, production of noun complement clauses, production of relative (adjunct) clauses) (P<0/05). Conclusion: The results of the present research showed that, in general, children with intellectual disabilities had a weaker performance in the perception and production of syntax in comparison to typically developing children with the same chronological and mental age. Gender was not found to have any significant effect on syntactic perception and production. Individuals who work in education of children with intellectual disabilities can make use of the results of this research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Syntactic perception؛ Production؛
  • Children with Intellectual Disability؛ Educable
  • typically developing children
  • ؛ Persian speakers
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