مروری بر اثربخشی پروتکل‌های پیشگیری از آسیب همسترینگ در فوتبال

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه حرکات اصلاحی و آسیب شناسی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه حرکات اصلاحی و آسیب شناسی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
آسیب همسترینگ رایج‌ترین آسیب عضلانی در رشته فوتبال است. آسیب‌های همسترینگ، مدت­زمان ازدست­رفته قابل توجهی دارند. با اینکه پروتکل‌های متنوعی برای پیشگیری از آسیب همسترینگ معرفی شده است، اما نرخ بروز آسیب در طول سالیان گذشته تغییر نکرده است؛ لذا هدف از تحقیق حاضر، مطالعه مروری در مورد اثربخشی پروتکل‌های پیشگیری از آسیب همسترینگ در کدهای فوتبال می‌باشد.
مواد و روش­ ها
در تحقیق حاضر مطالعات از سال­های 2005 تا 2018 مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. کلیدواژه‌های مورد نظر در پایگاه‌های تخصصی Science Direct، PubMed،EBSCO  و Sport Discus جستجو شد. تعداد 200 مقاله مورد بررسی قرار گرفت که در نهایت 8 مقاله مورد قبول واقع شد.
نتایج
از تعداد هشت مقاله، پنج مقاله فقط از تمرینات نوردیک، دو مقاله از تمرینات +11 و یک مطالعه نیز از تمرینات انعطاف‌پذیری استفاده کرده بودند. در این بین، تمرینات انعطاف­پذیری بر روی نرخ آسیب تأثیر معنا‌داری نداشتند، اما بر روی شدت آسیب مؤثر بودند. موثرترین تمرینات، تمرینات نوردیک بود.
بحث
با اینکه تمرینات نوردیک بر روی نرخ آسیب بسیار مؤثر واقع شد، اما در واقعیت نتایج مطالعات شیوع­شناسی کاهشی را در نرخ بروز آسیب در سالیان اخیر، گزارش نکرده‌اند. علاوه بر نوع تمرین، چندین عامل دیگر بر اثرگذاری یک پروتکل پیشگیری از آسیب مؤثر می‌باشد؛ از جمله آنها می‌توان مقبولیت پروتکل در بین مربیان و به­کارگیری آن توسط مربی را مهم‌ترین عوامل دانست. نکته دیگر اینکه دیدگاه رایج در طراحی تمرینات پیشگیری از آسیب همسترینگ، دیدگاه کاهنده می‌باشد و طراحی تمرین با این دیدگاه می‌تواند در اثرگذاری تمرینات مؤثر باشد.
نتیجه‌ گیری
تمرینات پیشگیری باید برای هر رشته ورزشی به‌طور خاص و به‌صورت عملکردی طراحی شود تا مورد مقبولیت مربی قرار گیرد و همچنین رویکرد طراحی تمرین نیز باید به‌صورت سیستماتیک باشد و بدن را در قالب یک سیستم ببیند تا نتایج مثبت‌تر و مناسب‌تری عاید شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Review of Effectiveness of Hamstring Injuries Prevention Protocols in Soccer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Sebyani 1
  • Mohammadhosein Alizadeh 2
1 PhD student Department of Sport Injury and Corrective Exercise, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Sport Injury and Corrective Exercise, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Hamstring strain is the most common muscle injury in soccer. In addition, hamstring injuries bring about significant time loss. Although there are various prevention protocols, the incidence of injury has not changed over the years. Therefore, the present review article was conducted to review the effectiveness of hamstring injury prevention protocol in soccer codes.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, the authors reviewed articles published between 2005-2019 in the databases Science Direct, Pub Med, EBSCO, and Sport Discus using relevant keywords, resulting in locating 200 articles. In the final screening, eight articles were selected for final analysis.
Result: Five articles used Nordic exercise, two articles used 11+, and one article used flexibility training. Flexibility exercise was not effective on injury incidence but was effective on severity among these exercises. The most effective exercise was found to be Nordic exercise.
Discussion: Although Nordic exercise was effective on injury incidence, based on epidemiological studies, incidence of injury has not changed in the real-world over the years. Except for exercise type, many factors influence the effectiveness of sport prevention protocols. One of these important factors is acceptability and compliance of protocol among trainers and coaches. Another point in designing hamstring injury prevention protocols is the reductionist point of view that influences the effectiveness of the protocol
Conclusion: Prevention protocols should be designed specific and functional for each sport. In addition, prevention protocol designers should consider a systematic point of view to obtain more positive results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • football
  • hamstring
  • Prevention protocols
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