اثربخشی برنامه توانبخشی حرفه ای بر امید به زندگی افراد با آسیب نخاعی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد مشاوره توانبخشی، گروه مشاوره، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مشاوره، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
یکی از مسائلی که مشاوران توانبخشی در ارتباط با افرادی که دچار ناتوانی جسمی و آسیب نخاعی می­ باشند، مطرح می­کنند، مشکلات روانی مانند ناامیدی و به دنبال آن چالش­ های متعددی همچون عدم اشتغال است. توانبخشی شغلی، یکی از ابعاد حیاتی توانبخشی است که با افزایش کارایی و بازگرداندن هرچه بیشتر توانایی و به حداقل رساندن محدودیت­ ها به فرد کمک می­ کند تا ضمن برطرف ساختن نیاز شغلی خود، جنبه­ هایی از ابعاد روانی مانند امید به زندگی را در خود تقویت کند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی اثربخشی توانبخشی حرفه­ ای بر امید به زندگی در افراد با آسیب نخاعی بود.
مواد و روش­ ها
طرح پژوهش حاضر، مطالعه­ ی مورد منفرد از نوع  A-Bبود. بدین منظور، با استفاده از نمونه­ گیری هدفمند، 5 نفر از افراد با آسیب نخاعی انتخاب شدند و طی هشت جلسه مداخله انفرادی، آموزش برنامه توانبخشی شغلی مبتنی بر نظریه شناختی-اجتماعی را دریافت کردند. ابزار جمع­آوری داده ­ها، سؤالات مربوط به زیرمقیاس امید از پرسشنامه­ ی سرمایه­های روانشناختی لوتانز بود. نتایج با استفاده از تحلیل دیداری، شاخص پایایی تغییر (RCI) و درصد بهبودی (MPI)، مورد تجزیه­ و­تحلیل قرار گرفت.
یافته ­ها
داده­ ها نشان داد که تحلیل دیداری نمودار­ها در مرحله مداخله، شیب صعودی دارد و شاخص پایایی تغییر بزرگتر از 1/96 و درصد بهبودی بالاتر از 50 درصد می­باشد؛ بنابراین، برنامه توانبخشی حرفه­ای بر امید به زندگی افراد با آسیب نخاعی هم از نظر آماری و هم از نظر بالینی معنادار است.
نتیجه ­گیری
از نتایج حاصل از پژوهش حاضر، می­توان چنین نتیجه گرفت که افراد با ضایعه نخاعی به دلیل ضعف­ ها و ناکارآمدی­هایی که در بدن خود احساس می­کنند و نیز فقدان آموزش ­های مناسب در جهت ایجاد و نگهداشت اشتغال دچار بی ­هدفی و ناامیدی می­شوند؛ بنابراین، با استفاده از برنامه توانبخشی حرفه‌ای، می­توان امید به زندگی را افراد با آسیب نخاعی را افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effectiveness of Occupational Rehabilitation Program on the Life Expectancy of People with Spinal Cord Injury

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Alsadat Badakhshian 1
  • Fatemeh Samiee 2
1 MA in Rehabilitation Counseling, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: One of the issues rehabilitation counselors face is that people with physical disabilities and spinal cord injuries have psychological problems, such as hopelessness, and many other challenges, such as unemployment. Occupational rehabilitation is one of the vital aspects of rehabilitation that helps individuals increase their efficiency and restore their abilities and minimize disabilities, while also addressing aspects of their psychological needs, such as life expectancy in itself. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of occupational rehabilitation on life expectancy in people with spinal cord injuries.
Materials and Method: A single case study of ABA type was used in the current study. For this purpose, using purposeful sampling, five individuals with spinal cord injury were selected and received eight sessions of individual intervention training in Social Cognitive Theory vocational rehabilitation program. Data were collected using the Luthans Psychological Capital Inventory Questionnaire. The results were analyzed making use of visual evaluation, Reliability of Change Index (RCI), and Percentage of Improvement (MPI).
Results: The results of the current study showed that the visual analysis of the graphs in the intervention phase had an ascending slope and the reliability index of change was greater than 1.96 and the recovery rate was higher than 50%. Therefore, occupational rehabilitation program has significant statistical and clinical significance.
Conclusion: Based on our findings, because of weaknesses and inefficiencies they feel in their bodies and due to lack of suitable training for recruitment and keeping their job, people with spinal cord injury face to frustration and hopelessness. Therefore, using a vocational rehabilitation program can increase the life expectancy of these people with spinal cord injury.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Occupational rehabilitation
  • Life expectancy
  • Spinal cord injury
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