اثربخشی تحریک فراجمجمه ای مغز با استفاده از جریان مستقیم الکتریکی (TDCS) بر کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان دارای اختلال یادگیری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روانشناسی بالینی کودک و نوجوان، دانشگاه علم و هنر یزد، یزد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه علم و هنر یزد، یزد، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری روانشناسی بالینی، دانشگاه علم و هنر یزد، یزد، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
نقص در کارکردهای اجرایی همچون مهارت­ های تنظیم رفتار (بازداری، انتقال توجه، کنترل هیجان) و مهارت­ های فراشناخت (برنامه­ ریزی، سازمان­دهی مواد، نظارت، حافظه کاری، آغازگری) و ضعف در خواندن، نوشتن و ریاضیات از علائم رایج در اختلالات یادگیری است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثربخشی تحریک فراجمجمه ­ای مغز با استفاده از جریان مستقیم الکتریکی (TDCS) بر کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان دارای اختلال یادگیری استان یزد صورت گرفت.
مواد و روش­ ها
طرح پژوهش حاضر از نوع نیمه­ آزمایشی با پیش­ آزمون-پس آزمون و گروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه دانش­ آموزان دارای اختلال یادگیری دختر و پسر دوره دبستان در استان یزد در سال تحصیلی 99-98 بودند که از میان آنان 30 نفر به روش نمونه­گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند و با گمارش تصادفی، به دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل (15 نفر برای هر دو گروه) تقسیم شدند. ابزار پژوهش، پرسشنامه کارکردهای اجرایی BRIEF بود. گروه آزمایش طی 10 جلسه 20 دقیقه ­ای جریان مستقیم و ضعیف 1/5 میلی­آمپر از طریق قرار دادن الکترود آند 5 در 5 سانت در منطقه پیش­پیشانی خلفی-جانبی چپ Fz و کاتد 5 در 7 سانت و جریان یک میلی­آمپر بر روی ساعد دست راست قرار گرفت. داده­ها با بهره­ گیری از  تحلیل کواریانس یک­راهه (آنکوا) و چندمتغیره (مانکوا) و آزمون مقایسه میانگین­ها تی مستقل مورد تجزیه­ و­ تحلیل قرار گرفت.
یافته­ ها
نتایج نشان داد که تحریک فراجمجمه­ ای مغز با استفاده از جریان مستقیم الکتریکی (TDCS) بر مهارت­ های تنظیم رفتار (بازداری، انتقال توجه، کنترل هیجان) و مهارت ­های فراشناخت (برنامه ­ریزی، سازمان­دهی مواد، نظارت، حافظه کاری، آغازگری) مؤثر بوده است.
نتیجه­ گیری
با توجه به یافته­های پژوهش برای بهبود کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان دارای اختلالات یادگیری که شامل مهارت ­های تنظیم رفتار و مهارت ­های فراشناخت می­شود می­توان از تحریک فراجمجمه­ ای مغز با استفاده از جریان مستقیم الکتریکی (TDCS) استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) on Executive Functions of Children with Learning Disabilities

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Arefanian 1
  • Mohsen Saeidmanesh 2
  • Mahdieh Azizi 3
1 MA in Clinical Psychology of Child and Adolescent, Science and Arts University, Yazd, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Science and Arts University, Yazd, Iran
3 PhD student in Clinical Psychology, Science and Arts University, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Deficits in executive functions, such as behavioral adjustment skills (inhibition, attention transfer, emotion control) and metacognitive skills (planning, organizing materials, monitoring, working memory, initiation) and weak reading, writing, and maths, are common symptoms in learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) on executive functions of children with learning disabilities in Yazd province.
Materials and Methods: A semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test, and control group study was conducted. The statistical population included all students with learning disabilities in Yazd province during 2018-2019. A total of 30 students were selected as the sample group using the Purposeful sampling method.  We randomly divided the participants into two control and experimental groups (n = 15 each). The research tool was the executive functions questionnaire of Bariff (Gerard et al., 2000). The experimental group was exposed to 1.5 milliamperes direct and weak current by inserting the anode electrode 5 x 5 cm in the left posterior forehead area (FZ) and also exposed to 1 milliampere current by inserting the cathode 5 x 7 cm on the right forearm, for 10 sessions, each session lasting for 20 minutes. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate covariance analysis (Mankova) as well as independent t-test.
Results: The results showed that Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) has been effective in both behavioral regulation skills (inhibition, attention transfer, emotion control) and metacognitive skills (planning, organizing materials, monitoring, working memory, initiation).
Conclusion: According to the results, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) seems effective in improving the executive functions of children with learning disabilities as well as their behavioral and cognitive skills.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS)
  • Executive Functions
  • Learning disability
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