اثر تمرینات شناختی، حرکتی و حرکتی-شناختی بر حافظه حرکتی آشکار، تعادل و راه رفتن زنان سالمند

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 استاد، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
سالمندی فرآیندی است که بر اساس تغییرات آرام و پیش‌رونده تمامی ابعاد وجودی انسان را تحت تاثیر قرار می­دهد. کاهش عملکرد جسمانی به­ ویژه تعادل، راه رفتن و نیز اختلالات حافظه از جمله مشکلات دوران سالمندی است که با عواقب و عوارض جسمانی، روانشناختی و اجتماعی همراه می­ باشد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی اثر هشت هفته تمرینات شناختی، حرکتی و حرکتی-شناختی بر حافظه حرکتی آشکار، تعادل و راه رفتن در زنان سالمند بود.
مواد و روش­ ها
جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر شامل 48 زن سالمند (سن: 54/2±83/67 سال) بودند که به ­صورت تصادفی به چهار گروه 12 نفره تقسیم شدند. تمرین حرکتی شامل هشت هفته تمرینات ایروبیک ریتمیک بود. برای تمرینات شناختی از نرم ­افزار Captain’s Log استفاده شد. تمرین ترکیبی نیز شامل تمرینات ایروبیک و شناختی به­ صورت متوالی بود. جهت بررسی عملکرد حرکتی از آزمون ­های شش دقیقه راه رفتن و زمان برخاستن و رفتن و آزمون حافظه حرکتی آشکار استفاده شد و تحلیل آماری متغییرها با استفاده از آزمون تحلیل واریانس با اندازه­ های مکرر استفاده شد.
یافته­ ها
نتایج نشان داد تمرینات شناختی تاثیر معناداری بر حافظه حرکتی آشکار بین آزمودنی­ ها داشت (p <0.05) و سبب بهبود تعادل (p <0.05)، راه رفتن (p <0.05) شد و تمرینات ترکیبی نیز باعث بهبود عملکرد حرکتی (p <0.05) و حافظه حرکتی آشکار (p <0.05) آزمودنی ­ها شد. مقایسه بین گروه‌ها نشان داد تمرینات شناختی و ترکیبی نسبت به هم اثرات مشابهی بر حافظه حرکتی آشکار (p <0.05) و همچنین اثرات نسبتاً یکسانی بر روی تعادل (p <0.05) و راه رفتن (p <0.05) آزمودنی ­ها داشت.
نتیجه ­گیری
با توجه به یافته‌های به ­دست­ آمده، می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که بیشترین تغییرات در رابطه با بهبود در زمان آزمون زمان برخاستن و رفتن و بهبود در زمان آزمون شش دقیقه راه رفتن گروه تمرینات حرکتی بود و بیشترین تغییر در رابطه با بهبود حافظه حرکتی آشکار مربوط به گروه تمرینات ترکیبی (حرکتی-شناختی) بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Cognitive, Motor, and Motor-Cognitive Exercises on Explicit Motor Memory Balance and Walking of Elderly Women

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa Yousefshahi 1
  • Hasan Mohammadzadeh 2
1 Ph.D in Candidate, Motor Behavior Department, Sport Sciences Collage, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Ph.D in Motor Behavior Department, Sport Sciences Collage, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Elderly is a process that changes all aspects of human existence on the basis of slow and progressive changes. A decline in physical function, especially balance, walking, and memory disorders are other problems in the elderly together with physical, psychological, and social consequences.The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of cognitive, motor, and motor-cognitive exercises on explicit motor memory, balance, and walking of elderly women.
Materials and Methods: The statistical population of the study consisted of 48 elderly women (age: 67.83 ± 2.54 years) who were randomly divided into four groups of 12. Motor training consisted of eight weeks of rhythmic aerobic exercise. For cognitive exercises, Captain’s Log software was used. Hybrid exercise included performing aerobic and cognitive exercises in succession. Measuring instruments included Six-Minute Walk, Timed Up and Go as well as explicit motor memory test to evaluate the cognitive function. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The results showed that eight weeks of cognitive exercise had significant effect on explicit motor memory among participants (p < 0.05) and improved their balance (p < 0.05) and walking (p < 0.05). In addition, hybrid exercises (motor-cognitive) improved both motor function (p < 0.05) and explicit motor memory (p < 0.05) in the participants. Comparison between groups showed that both cognitive and hybrid excersices relative to each other had similar effects on explicit motor memory (p < 0.05) and had rather the same effect on the participants’ balance (p < 0.05) and walking (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, it can be concluded that most changes   regarding improvement time of getting up and going test was in the six minutes test time for motor training group and most changes in the improvement of explicit motor memory was related to cognitive-motor group.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Motor Exercise
  • Cognitive Exercise
  • Elderly women
  • Balance
  • Explicit motor memory
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