تاثیر تحریک الکتریکی فراجمجمه مغز و تمرینات منتخب بر تعادل کودکان دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آسیب شناسی ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد تهران شرق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد تهران شرق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار بیومکانیک ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد تهران شرق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
کودکان دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی (DCD) نسبت به کودکان سالم در عملکردهای حسی حرکتی ضعیف هستند، عملکرد ضعیف حرکتی در فعالیتهای روزانه با سن و هوش کودک مطابقت ندارد و ناشی از بیماری های عصبی هم نیست. اختلال هماهنگی رشدی یکی از نارسایی های بارز در زمینة رشد مهارت های حرکتی در کودکان پیش دبستانی و ابتدایی است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی اثر تحریک الکتریکی فراجمجمه مغز و تمرینات منتخب بر تعادل کودکان دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی در شرایط مختلف حسی است.
مواد و روش ها
روش پژوهش، آزمایشی بود و از طرح پیش آزمون- پس آزمون با گروه کنترل استفاده شد. تعداد 20 کودک 7 تا 14 سال دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی با روش نمونه گیری در دسترس از مدارس عادی پس از اعمال معیارهای ورود و خروج انتخاب شدند و به طور تصادفی در دو گروه مداخله و کنترل قرار گرفتند. پس از بررسی تعادل آزمودنی ها بوسیله آزمون سازماندهی حسی در شش حالت مختلف با دستگاه پوسچوگرافی کامپیوتری، گروه مداخله به مدت 8 جلسه و هر هفته 3 جلسه تحت تحریک الکتریکی فراجمجمه مخچه (ctDCS) و برنامه حرکتی قرار گرفتند ولی گروه کنترل تحریک الکتریکی ساختگی (تحریک نما) و برنامه حرکتی را تجربه کردند. بعد از پایان مداخله، پس آزمون برای ارزیابی عملکرد تعادلی دو گروه بعمل آمد.
یافته ها
نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که بین دو گروه در حالت در دسترس بودن اطلاعات آوران سیستم های حسی (001/0=p)، حذف اطلاعات سیستم بینایی (006/0=p)، ارائه آرایه های نامناسب سیستم بینایی (023/0=p)، حذف اطلاعات سیستم حسی عمقی (007/0=p) و حذف اطلاعات سیستم حس عمقی و ارائه آرایه های نامناسب بینایی (021/0=p) تفاوت معنی داری وجود داشت. در حالت حذف اطلاعات سیستم حس عمقی و بینایی (102/0=p) بین دو گروه تفاوت معنادار وجود نداشت.
نتیجه گیری
با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده از این پژوهش، تحریک الکتریکی فراجمجمه می تواند به عنوان یک روش جدید قبل از فعالیت بدنی بر تعادل کودکان دچار اختلال هماهنگی رشدی تاثیرگذار بوده و به بهبود تعادل این کودکان کمک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Selected Exercises on Balance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sharzad Bahrami 1
  • Seyed Kazem Mousavi Sadati 2
  • Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo 3
1 MSc Student of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercise, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Sport Biomechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have poor sensory motor function compared to healthy children. Poor motor performance in daily activities is not consistent with the child’s age and intelligence, and is not due to medical condition. DCD is one of the most prominent impairments in the development of motor skills in preschool and elementary children. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of transcranial electrical stimulation and selected exercises on balance in children with developmental coordination disorder in different sensory conditions.
Materials and Methods: An experimental study with pre–posttest design and control group was conducted on 20 children, 7 to 14 years old, who were randomly divided into intervention and control groups after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After examining the participants’ balance evaluated by Sensory Organizing Test of Computerized Dynamic Posturorghraphy apparatus in six different sensory modes, the intervention group underwent transcutaneous electrical stimulation and motor program for 8 sessions and 3 sessions per week, and the control group received mock electrical stimulation and motor program. Next, the post-test was performed to evaluate the balance performance between the two groups.
Results: The results of the study showed that the two groups have significant differences in Normal Vision and Fixed Support (P = 0.001), Absent Vision and Fixed Support (P = 0.006), Sway-Referenced Vision and Fixed Support (P = 0.023), condition Normal Vision and Sway-Referenced Support (P = 0.007), and Sway-Referenced Vision and Sway-Referenced Support (P = 0.021) conditions. Also, the two groups were not found to be significantly different in Absent Vision and Sway-Referenced Support (P = 0.102) condition.
Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, transcranial electrical stimulation can be a new method of pre-physical activity on the balance of children with developmental coordination disorder and can help improve balance in these children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • developmental coordination disorder
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation
  • Balance
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