بازنمایی دستور زبان داستان در گفتمان روایی دانش آموزان سندرم داون آموزش پذیر فارسی زبان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار زبان شناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

2 دانشیار روانپزشکی کودک و نوجوان، مرکز تحقیقات علوم اعصاب، موسسه نوروفارموکولوژی، بیمارستان روانپزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی، کرمان، ایران

3 دکترای زبان شناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد زبانشناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
سندرم داون اختلال ژنتیکی است که می­تواند در اکثر موارد همراه با اختلال­ هایی همچون شناختی، رشدی و زبانی باشد. یکی از اختلال­ های تاثیرگذار در روند رشد و زندگی اجتماعی افراد مبتلا به سندرم داون در سطح گفتمان روایی نمود پیدا می­کند. گفتمان روایی یکی از مهارت­ هایی است که نقش بسیار مهمی در تعامل­ های روزمره و حتی پیشرفت تحصیلی و شغلی افراد دارد. از آنجایی­ که این سطح از مهارت مستلزم فراخواندن و به­ کارگیری همزمان مهارت­ های شناختی و زبانی است، درک و تولید آن می­تواند برای افراد مبتلا به سندرم داون چالش ­برانگیز باشد؛ بنابراین هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی درک و تولید گفتمان روایی دانش ­آموزان آموزش­پذیر فارسی ­زبان سندرم داون بر اساس الگوی دستور زبان است.
مواد و روش­ها
در پژوهش حاضر، بررسی بازنمایی دستور زبان داستان در سطح گفتمان روایی دانش‌آموزان سندرم داون آموزش­پذیر فارسی ­زبان بر اساس الگوی دستور زبان داستان مطرح ­شده توسط گلدمن و وارن هاگن انجام شد. به این منظور، 20 دانش­آموز سندرم داون آموزش­ پذیر (10 دختر و 10 پسر) با سن تقویمی 10 تا 24 سال (سن عقلی 10 تا 12 سال) و گروه کنترل شامل 20 دانش­ آموز عادی (10 دختر و 10 پسر) با سن تقویمی 10 تا 12 سال در آزمون درک و تولید گفتمان روایی بر اساس دستور زبان داستان شرکت داشتند. داده ­های گردآوری ­شده ابتدا بررسی و توصیف شد. سپس، با استفاده از نرم­ افزار SPSS نسخه 22 و با به­ کارگیری آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک­ طرفه مورد تجزیه­ و ­تحلیل قرار گرفتند.
یافته ­ها
یافته­ ها نشان داد تفاوت معناداری در درک و تولید دستور زبان داستان توسط دانش‌آموزان عادی و دانش‌آموزان سندرم داون آموزش ­پذیر وجود داشت. به­ طوری که عملکرد دانش‌آموزان سندرم داون آموزش ­پذیر در درک و تولید گزاره ­های دستور زبان داستان به­ طور معناداری (0/05>P) ضعیف ­تر از دانش ­آموزان عادی بود. با این حال، دانش­ آموزان سندرم داون آموزش­ پذیر پایان داستان (یعنی، آخرین گزاره) را بهتر از دیگر گزاره ­های داستان درک و تولید کردند.
نتیجه­ گیری
به نظر می‌رسد عملکرد ضعیف دانش‌آموزان سندرم داون آموزش ­پذیر در درک و تولید دستور زبان داستان می­تواند مرتبط با ضعف­ های شناختی و زبانی آنها باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Representation of Story Grammar in Educable Down Syndrome Persian-Speaking Students’ Narrative Discourse

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Ali Ahangar 1
  • Mahin Eslami Sharbabaki 2
  • Setareh Mojahedi Rezaeian 3
  • Niloofar Sarmast 4
1 Associate Professor, Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, MD, Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Department of Psychiatry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
3 PhD in Linguistics, Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
4 M.A in Linguistics, Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Down syndrome is a genetic disorder which can be accompanied by some disorders such as cognitive, developmental, and linguistic disorders in most cases. One of the effective disorders in the developmental process and social life of the individuals with Down syndrome is represented in the level of narrative discourse. Narrative discourse is one of the skills that has a very vital role in the daily communications and even the educational and professional development. Since this level of skill needs to recall and use the cognitive and the linguistic skills simultaneously, its comprehension and production can be challenging for the individuals with Down syndrome. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate Persian-speaking educable Down syndrome students’ comprehension and production of narrative discourse based on the story grammar model.
Materials and Methods: In the current research, the story grammar representation in Persian-speaking educable Down syndrome students’ narrative discourse level was studied following Goldman and Varnhagen’s story grammar model. To this end, 20 educable Down syndrome students (10 girls and 10 boys) with the chronological age of 10 to 24 years (mental age of 10 to 12 years) and a control group consisting of 20 normal children (10 girls and 10 boys) with the chronological age of 10 to 12 years participated in the test of the comprehension and production of narrative discourse based on the story grammar. The collected data were first studied and described. Then, they were analysed using SPSS software, version 22, running One-Way ANOVA test. 
Results: The findings showed that there was a significant difference between normal students and educable Down syndrome students in story grammar comprehension and production in such way that educable Down syndrome students’ performance in the comprehension and production of story grammar propositions was significantly (p < .05) weaker. Nevertheless, educable Down syndrome students comprehended and produced the end of the story, namely the last proposition, better than other propositions of the story. 
Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that the weak performance of educable Down syndrome students in the comprehension and production of story grammar is related to the cognitive and linguistic weaknesses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Discourse
  • Narrative
  • Story Grammar
  • Down syndrome
  • Persian Language
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