تأثیر تمرین های ادراکی-حرکتی و ذهن‌آگاهی بر شبکه‌های توجه و دقت پاسخ کودکان مبتلا به نقص توجه-بیش‌فعالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد تربیت‌‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم رفتاری و شناختی در ورزش، دانشکده علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
امروزه با توجه به شیوع اختلال نقص توجه-بیش‌فعالی، انجام پژوهش برای تعیین تأثیر تمرینات و راهکارهای غیردارویی برای کمک به بهبود افراد مبتلا به نقص توجه-بیش‌فعالی بیش­ازپیش احساس می­شود. پژوهش حاضر نیز با همین منظور و با اعمال متغیرهای ادراکی–حرکتی و ذهن­آگاهی انجام شده است.
مواد و روش­ ها
پژوهش حاضر به روش نیمه‌تجربی با طرح پیش‌آزمون-پس‌آزمون با دو گروه آزمایشی و یک گروه شاهد انجام شده است. شرکت­کننده‌های این پژوهش شامل 30 کودک مبتلا به اختلال نقص‌ توجه-بیش‌فعالی با میانگین سن 65/1±9 سال بودند که به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند؛ از شرکت­کننده­ ها در پیش‌آزمون، آزمون شبکه‌های توجهی گرفته شد. سپس مداخلۀ مربوط به هر گروه آزمایش در مدت 8 جلسۀ یک­ساعته اجرا شد. بعد از آن‌که دو گروه (تمرینات ذهن‌آگاهی و تمرینات ادراکی-حرکتی) تمرینات خود را به­مدت چهار هفته، هر هفته دو جلسه و هر جلسه یک ساعت انجام دادند، مجددا از آن­ها آزمون شبکه­های توجهی گرفته شد. برای آزمون فرضیه‌های تحقیق از آزمون آنکوا و تحلیل واریانس مرکب با اندازه‌های مکرر با سطح معناداری 0/05>p استفاده شد.
یافته­ ها
یافته‌ها نشان داد که تمرین­های ادراکی-حرکتی و ذهن‌آگاهی بر دقت پاسخ و برخی از زیرمجموعه‌های (شاخص‌های) شبکه‌های توجهی کودکان مبتلا به نقص توجه- بیش‌فعالی تاثیر معنادار دارد، در صورتی که در گروه کنترل تغییرات معناداری مشاهده نشد. همچنین اثر تمرین­های ذهن­آگاهی از تمرین­ های ادراکی–حرکتی بیش­تر می­باشد.
نتیجه­ گیری
طبق نتایج به نظر می‌رسد استفاده از تمرینات ذهن‌آگاهی و ادراکی-حرکتی در کنار سایر روش‌های درمانی افزایش توجه برای این کودکان پیشنهاد می‌گردد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Perceptual-Motor Training and Mindfulness on Attentional Networks and Accuracy of Response in Children with Attention Disorde-Hyperactivity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Pirian 1
  • Alireza Farsi 2
1 MSc in Sport Sciences and Health, Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences in Sport , Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences in Sport, Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Today, considering the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), more researches are needed to determine the impact of non-pharmacological training and strategies to help people with ADHD. The present study was conducted with this purpose in mind by applying perceptual-motor variables and mindfulness variables.
Materials and Methods: The present semi-experimental method with a pretest-posttest design with two experimental groups and a control group was conducted on 30 children ADHD (mean age 9.5 ± 1/65) selected using subjective sampling. Participants were involved in a pre-test session to perform attention networks test. Then, the intervention for each experimental group was applied for eight sessions, one hour each session. The same test was administered as post-test on both groups (mindfulness and cognitive-motor training) following four weeks of training, two sessions per week and one hour per session. ANCOVA and compound analysis of variance (3 groups*2 time factors) with repeated measures, with the significance level set at p <0.05, were used to test the research hypotheses.
Results: The findings showed that perceptual-motor training and mindfulness had a significant effect on the accuracy of response and some subgroups (indicators) of attention deficit hyperactivity networks. No significant changes were observed in the control geoup. So, the effect of mindfulness was found to be greater.
Conclusion: According to the results, using mindfulness and cognitive-motor training along with other therapies are recommended for these children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Perceptual-motor
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Response Accuracy
  • mindfulness
  • Attention Networks
  • children
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