بررسی اثر توانبخشی شناختی بر عملکردهای اجرایی (بازداری پاسخ و برنامه ریزی) کودکان دارای اختلال نقص توجه و بیش فعالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دوره دکتری روانشناسی سلامت، واحد بین المللی خرمشهر-خلیج فارس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خرمشهر، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
اختلال بیش ­فعالی و کمبود توجه، یکی ازاختلال­های روانشناختی و روانپزشکی است که در کودکی ظاهر می­شود. این اختلال به عنوان شایعترین اختلال­های عصبی–رفتاری در دوره کودکی شناخته شده است که بخش بزرگی از جمعیت کودکان جهان را مبتلا کرده است. این اختلال غالبا به عملکرد فرد در بسیاری از زمینه ها همچون تحصیل، توجه و تمرکز، ارتباطات اجتماعی و حوزه های شناختی از جمله کارکردهای اجرایی صدمه می­زند. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، بررسی اثر توانبخشی شناختی بر کارکردهای اجرایی (بازداری پاسخ و برنامه ­ریزی) کودکان دارای اختلال نقص توجه و بیش ­فعالی می ­باشد.
مواد و روش ­ها
پژوهش حاضر از نوع شبه ­آزمایشی با طرح کارآزمایی بالینی پیش­ آزمون-پس­ آزمون با گروه کنترل بوده است. 30 کودک دارای اختلال نقص توجه و بیش ­فعالی 7-9 سال که در سال 98-1397 به کلینیک مشاوره آمورش­ و ­پرورش ناحیه 1 شیراز، مراجعه داشتند، با استفاده از آزمون تشخیصی 4CSI- تشخیص ­گذاری شده و با استفاده از آزمون هوش ریون یکسان­ سازی شدند و به­ صورت نمونه ­گیری هدفمند انتخاب و به ­طور تصادفی به دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل تقسیم شدند. گروه آزمایش، در ده جلسه یک ­ساعته به­صورت هر هفته دو جلسه، تحت مداخله برنامه­ه ای توانبخشی قرار گرفتند. در پژوهش حاضر، متغیر بازداری پاسخ با استفاده از آزمون استروپ و متغیر برنامه ­ریزی با آزمون بریف انجام شد.
یافته ­ها
کارکردهای اجرایی (بازداری پاسخ) در پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون در کودکان دارای اختلال نقص توجه و بیش ­فعالی تفاوت معنادار وجود دارد. کارکردهای اجرایی (برنامه ­ریزی) در پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون تفاوت معناداری (p <0/001) را نشان داد.
نتیجه ­گیری
به نظر می‌رسد توانبخشی­ شناختی بر بهبود عملکردهای اجرایی (بازداری پاسخ و برنامه­ریزی) کودکان دارای اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش­ فعالی موثر است و کارکردهای اجرایی (بازداری پاسخ و برنامه ­ریزی) را بهبود می­بخشد و جایگزینی مناسب در برابر تاثیرات داروهای روان ­محرک برای این کودکان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on Executive Function (Response Retention and Scheduling) in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elahe Yavari Barhaghtalab 1
  • Parviz Asgary 2
  • Farah Naderi 2
  • Alireza Heidarie 2
1 PhD Student of Health Psychology, Khorramshahr International Branch, Persian Gulf, Islamic Azad University, Khorramshahr, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, usually exhibiting from childhood and if left untreated, continues throughout the lifespan. ADHD is believed to be the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The symptoms often create impairments in one or more major areas of the person’s life that require levels of attention and concentration, such as learning, relationships, and work. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of cognitive rehabilitation on executive functions (response retardation and planning) in children with ADHD.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a semi experimental study, designed with pre-test / post-test clinical trial and a control group. A total of 30 children with ADHD, aged 7-9 years old, who were referred to the clinic of the Ministiry of Educaion in Shiraz, educational sector 1, were diagnosed using the Raven Intelligence Test and matched via the CSI-4 Diagnostic Test. The children, selected via purposive sampling, were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. Children in the experimental group were given 10 sessions of rehabilitation program each week, each session for one hour. Response inhibition was measured using Stroop and Planned with Bariff test.
Results: Pre- and Post-test scores were significantly different in measures of executive functions (both response retention and planning) in children with ADHD (P <0/001).
Conclusion: Training on cognitive rehabilitation appears to be effective in improving the executive functions (response retention and planning) of children with ADHD and can be offered as an appropriate replacement against the effects of psycho stimulants medications

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive rehabilitation
  • Executive Function
  • response retardation
  • Planning
  • children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
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