اثربخشی توان‌بخشی ‌شناختی حافظه بر بهبود کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان دارای نشانه‌های نارسایی توجه و بیش‌فعالی استان یزد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه روانشناسی عمومی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه علم و هنر یزد، یزد، ایران.

2 گروه علوم شناختی، پژوهشکده علوم شناختی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

10.22037/jrm.2020.113897.2458

چکیده

اهداف: امروزه اختلال نارسایی توجه / بیش‌فعالی یک اختلال عصبی رشدی شناخته شده است که سه ویژگی اصـلی آن نارسـایی توجه، بیش‌فعالی و تکانشگری است که بـر 3 تا 7 درصد کودکان اثـر مـی‌گـذارد و معمولاً با نقص در کارکرد‌های اجرایی همراه است. پژوهش حاضر در نظر دارد به بررسی اثربخشی بسته توان‌بخشی شناختی حافظه بر بهبود کارکرد‌های اجرایی کودکان دارای نارسایی توجه / بیش‌فعالی بپردازد.
مواد و روش‌ها: در مطالعه شبه‌آزمایشی حاضر با طرح کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی حاضر از طرح پیش‌آزمون پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری متشکل از همه دانش‌آموزان مبتلا به اختلال نقص توجه / بیش‌فعالی در سال تحصیلی 1397-1398 در مدارس عادی ناحیه دو یزد مشغول به تحصیل بوده‌اند که از بین آن‌ها، سی نفر به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند و به ‌صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل قرار گرفتند. دو گروه (آزمایش و کنترل) از نظر سن و هوش کلامی و عملی همسان‌سازی شده بودند. گروه آزمایش برنامه توان‌بخشی حافظه را در دوازده جلسه سی دقیقه‌ای دریافت کردند. هر دو گروه کنترل و آزمایش در جلسه اول و آخر درمان ارزیابی شدند. علائم رفتاری کودکان مبتلا توسط پرسش‌نامه ‌کانرز‌ فرم‌ والدین ارزیابی شد. داده‌های این پژوهش با آزمون آماری تی مستقل، تحلیل واریانس آمیخته و به کمک نرم‌افزار SPSS نسخه 19 تجزیه‌ و ‌تحلیل شد.
یافته‌ها: یافته‌ها نشان داد که درمان توان‌بخشی شناختی حافظه به طور معناداری منجر به بهبود کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان مبتلا به نارسایی توجه / بیش‌فعالی شده است (0/005>P).
نتیجه‌گیری: به نظر می‌رسد که توان‌بخشی شناختی با استفاده از تکالیف رایانه‌ای در بهبود کارکردهای اجرایی مؤثر است؛ بنابراین با توجه به یافته‌های به‌دست‌آمده در پژوهش حاضر، پیشنهاد می‌شود که در کنار سایر روش‌های آموزشی و توان‌بخشی دانش‌آموزان با اختلال نقص توجه / بیش‌فعالی، برنامه توان‌بخشی شناختی مبتنی بر حافظه نیز به کار برده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of a Memory Rehabilitation Program on Executive Functions of Children With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Jafari Nodoushan 1
  • Hasan Zare Khormizi 2
1 Master of General Psychology, Science and Arts University, Yazd, Iran
2 Department of Cognitive Science, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsivity affecting 3-7% of the children and is usually associated with defects in the executive functions. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the cognitive rehabilitation of memory in improving the executive functions of children with ADHD.
Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial with a quasi-experimental design and pre-test and post-test phases. The study population consists of all school students suffering from ADHD in Yazd Iran in 2019. Of these, 30 were selected using a convenience sampling method and randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The two groups were matched for age and practical and verbal intelligence. The intervention group received the memory rehabilitation program at 12 sessions each for 30 minutes. Both groups were evaluated at the first and last sessions of the treatment. The behavioral symptoms of the affected children were evaluated by Conners’ Parent Rating Scale. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and mixed-design ANOVA in SPSS v. 19 software.
Results: The cognitive rehabilitation of memory significantly improved the executive functions of children with ADHD (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The cognitive rehabilitation of memory by computerized tasks can improve the executive functions of ADHD children. Therefore, it is recommended that it should be used along with other educational and rehabilitation methods for children with ADHD.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Memory rehabilitation
  • Executive Functions
  • children
  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
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