تأثیرتمرینات با تمرکز بر کانون توجه بیرونی بر عوامل خطرزای کینتیکی مرتبط با بروز آسیب ACL

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه تندرستی و بازتوانی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

3 گروه علوم رفتاری و شناختی در ورزش، دانشکده علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

4 آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، پژوهشگاه تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران.

5 گروه آسیب‌شناسی و بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

10.32598/sjrm.10.3.8

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: یکی از شایع‌ترین و خطرناک‌ترین آسیب‌ها در ورزش، آسیب لیگامنت متقاطع قدامی (ACL) است. امروزه علی‌رغم وجود برنامه‌های پیشگیری از آسیب ACL میزان شیوع این آسیب همچنان بالاست. اکثر دستورالعمل‌هایی که در برنامه‌های پیشگیری از آسیب استفاده می‌شوند مبتنی بر کانون توجه درونی هستند. از طرفی مطالعات نشان داده‌اند استفاده از کانون توجه بیرونی باعث بهبود عملکرد در افراد می‌شود. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بررسی اثر کانون توجه در اجرای هشت هفته تمرینات پیشگیری از آسیب لیگامنت متقاطع قدامی بر متغیرهای کینتیکی مهارت فرود، در بازیکنان فوتبال بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: در این تحقیق 35 بازیکن جوان فوتبال از سه تیم لیگ برتر استان تهران شرکت کردند. بازیکنان به طور تصادفی به سه گروه کانون توجه بیرونی (12 نفر)، کانون توجه درونی (12 نفر) و گروه کنترل (11 نفر) تقسیم شدند. ابتدا در پیش‌آزمون نیروی عکس‌العمل زمین، نرخ بارگذاری نیرو و زمان رسیدن به ثبات طی مهارت فرود از روی سکوی 30 سانتی‌متری توسط فورس پلیت سنجیده شد. سپس گروه‌های تمرینی به مدت هشت هفته تمرینات پیشگیری از آسیب را به همراه دستورالعمل‌های مربوطه انجام دادند و مجدداً سه گروه جهت بررسی تغییرات مورد آزمون قرار گرفتند. از روش‌های آماری تحلیل واریانس با اندازه‌گیری مکرر و آزمون آنوای یک‌سویه و آزمون تعقیبی توکی جهت ارزیابی تغییرات استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: یافته‌ها تغییرات معنی‌داری (05/0‌≤p) را در مؤلفه‌های نیروی عمودی، قدامی خلفی عکس‌العمل زمین و نرخ بارگذاری نیرو در گروه کانون توجه بیرونی نشان دادند، اما در زمان رسیدن به ثبات و نیروی داخلی خارجی عکس‌العمل زمین تفاوت معنی‌دار بین دو گروه کانون توجه بیرونی و درونی مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه به نظر می‌رسد استفاده از دستورالعمل‌های کانون توجه بیرونی تأثیرات مثبتی بر مؤلفه‌های کینتیکی و مکانیک فرود دارد. بنابراین به مربیان توصیه می‌شود جهت کاهش ریسک وقوع آسیب ACL و بازتوانی این آسیب از تمریناتی مبتنی بر دستورالعمل کانون توجه بیرونی استفاده کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of External Focus Attention Exercise On the Kinetic Risk Factors Associated With ACL Injury

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nazanin Dalvandpour 1
  • Mostafa Zarei 2
  • Behrouz Abdoli 3
  • Hamed Abbasi 4
  • Mohammad Amin Mohamadian 5
1 Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Sport Sciences & Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Health and Sport Rehabilitation, Faculty of Sport Sciences & Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Department of Sport Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, Faculty of Sport Sciences & Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
4 Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.
5 Department of Sport Biomechanics and Sport Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: One of the most common and dangerous injuries in sports is an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury. Today, despite the ACL injury prevention programs, the prevalence of this injury remains high. Most of the instructions used in injury prevention programs are based on internal focus, while studies have shown that using external focus can improve performance in individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of focus of attention on eight weeks of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training on landing skill kinetic variables in soccer players.
Methods: The current methodology included 35 players from 3 premier league teams in Tehran province. The teams were randomly divided into three groups of Prevent injury and Enhance Performance (PEP) exercises based on the External Focus (EF) (12 people), Internal Focus (IF) (12 people), and control group (11 people). In the pretest of ground reaction force, rate of loading, and time to stabilization during landing skill. The training groups performed pep injury prevention exercises for eight weeks and related instructions instead of warm-up exercises. Control group players were performing the regular activities. ANOVA with repeated measures and one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used to evaluate changes
Results: The test results showed significant changes in vertical, anterior-posterior ground reaction force and rate of loading in the external focus group (P≤0.05). But there was no critical difference in time to stabilization and internal-external ground reaction force.
Conclusion: According to the results, external focus instruction has positive effects on kinetic components. Therefore, it is recommended that exercises based on these instructions be used to reduce the risk of ACL injury and to repair this injury.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
  • Injury
  • Prevention
  • Single-leg jump-landing
  • attention focus
  • Kinetics
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