اثر چهار هفته تمرینات اغتشاشی بر تعادل، عملکرد حرکتی و خطر سقوط در افراد نابینا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه حرکات اصلاحی و آسیب‌شناسی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه بهداشت و طب ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 گروه حرکات اصلاحی و آسیب‌شناسی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان، ایران.

10.32598/sjrm.10.3.17

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف: تمرین اغتشاشی مبتنی بر تعادل، نوعی تمرین است که در آن شرکت‌کنندگان بارها از دست دادن تعادل را به منظور تمرین و بهبود کنترل واکنش‌های تعادل تجربه می‌کنند. به علت ضعف افراد نابینا در حفظ کنترل پاسچر، این تحقیق با هدف بررسی اثر چهار هفته تمرینات اغتشاشی مبتی بر تعادل روی خطر سقوط، عملکرد حرکتی و تعادل افراد نابینا صورت گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: در این مطالعه، سی مرد مبتلا به اختلال بینایی مطلق به صورت تصادفی، در دو گروه کنترل (پانزده نفر) و تجربی (پانزده نفر) قرار گرفتند. گروه آزمایش تمرینات اغتشاشی را به مدت چهار هفته و سه جلسه در هفته به مدت شصت دقیقه اجرا کردند. جهت ارزیابی تعادل ایستا از آزمون لک ‌لک اصلاح‌شده، تعادل پویا از آزمون تعادل برگ، عملکرد حرکتی از تست تاینیتی و خطر سقوط از آزمون دست‌یابی عملکردی قبل و پس از آزمایش تمرینی استفاده شد. داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون تی ‌مستقل و تحلیل آنالیز واریانس اندازه‌های تکراری در سطح 0/05= α تجزیه و تحلیل شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که گروه آزمایش دارای افزایش در میانگین نمرات شاخص‌های تعادل ایستا (0/001=P)، تعادل پویا (0/001=P)، عملکرد حرکتی (0/001=P) و کاهش میزان خطر سقوط (0/001=P) است و به ‌طور معناداری بهتر از گروه کنترل است. همچنین در پس‌آزمون، یافته‌های تغییرات درون‌گروهی نشان داد گروه آزمایش نسبت به گروه کنترل تأثیر بیشتری بر افزایش تعادل، افزایش عملکرد حرکتی و کاهش میزان افتادن داشت (05/p<0).
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج پژوهش حاضر به نظر می‌رسد که استفاده از تمرینات اغتشاشی موجب بهبود تعادل، افزایش سطح عملکرد حرکتی و کاهش ریسک خطر افتادن در افراد نابینا می‌شود. با توجه به مثبت بودن اثربخشی تمرینات‌ اغتشاشی و مزایای این نوع توان‌بخشی پیشنهاد می‌شود که اجرای این برنامه توان‌بخشی بر معلولین نابینا و کم‌بینا صورت گیرد. به مربیان ورزشی دانش‌آموزان با اختلال بینایی پیشنهاد می‌شود در کنار دیگر تمرینات برای افزایش آمادگی جسمانی در مدارس از تمرینات اغتشاشی مبتنی بر تعادل مورد استفاده در این تحقیق استفاده کنند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of 4-weeks Perturbation Training on Balance, Movement Function, and Risk of Falling in Blind People

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Hani Mansoori 1
  • Yousof Moghadas Tabrizi 2
  • Mohammad Karimizadeh Ardakani 2
  • Mitra Omidi 3
1 Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Perturbation training is a type of exercise in which participants frequently experience loss of balance to practice and improve control of balance reactions. Due to postural control impairment in blind people, this study aimed to investigate the effect of 4-week perturbation-based balance training on risk of falling, movement function, and balance in people with visual impairment.
Methods: In the current, 30 men with absolute visual impairment were randomly divided into control (n=15) and experimental (n=15) groups. The experimental group performed perturbation exercises for four weeks and three sessions per week for 60 minutes. To evaluate the static balance of the modified stork test, the dynamic balance of the Berg balance tests, the movement function of the Tinetti test, and the fall risk of the functional reach test before and after the training intervention were used. Data were analyzed using an independent t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance at the level of α=0.05.
Results: The results showed that the experimental group had an increase in the mean scores of static balance (P=0.001), dynamic balance (P=0.001), movement function (P=0.001), and decreased risk of falling (P=0.001) and is significantly better than the control group. Also, in the post-test, the findings of intragroup changes showed that the experimental group had a more significant effect on increasing balance, increasing movement function, and decreasing the rate of falling than the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, the use of perturbation exercises improves balance, increases the level of movement function, and reduces the risk of falling in blind people. Due to the positive effects of exercises and the benefits of this type of rehabilitation, it is recommended that this rehabilitation program be performed on the blind and visually impaired. Sports instructors are advised to use the balance-based perturbation exercises in this study and other exercises for people with visual impairment to increase their fitness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Perturbation exercise
  • Balance
  • Risk of Falling
  • Movement function
  • Visual Impairment
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