مقایسه‌ی فرآیندهای واجی بین کودکان کم‌شنوا و کودکان شنوای بلوچ‌زبان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار زبانشناسی، گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری زبانشناسی همگانی، گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد زبانشناسی همگانی، گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2020.113802.2440

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
برخورداری از شنوایی یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل فراگیری زبان است. برخی کودکان به ‌علت ابتلا به افت شنوایی، قادر به شنیدن صوت در محدوده‌ی طبیعی نیستند و در ‌نتیجه به‌خاطر مشکلات شنوایی، در فراگیری و به‌کارگیری زبان مشکل دارند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی و مقایسه‌ی کاربرد فرآیندهای واجی و تأثیر سن و جنسیت بر آن در کودکان کم‌شنوا و شنوای بلوچ‌زبان است تا نتایج آن به شناخت بهتر مسأله و چاره‌اندیشی برای این مشکل در مطالعات آینده بیانجامد.
مواد و روش ­ها
پژوهش حاضرتوصیفی-تحلیلی و مقطعی بود. آزمودنی‌ها شامل 16 کودک (8 دختر و 8 پسر) کم‌شنوا و 16 کودک (8 دختر و 8 پسر) شنوای 7 تا 10‌ ساله‌ی بلوچ‌زبان بودند که به‌طور تصادفی از مدارس شهرستان زاهدان انتخاب شدند. آزمون مورد‌ استفاده، آزمون محقق‌ساخته حاوی 80 عکس از اشیا ملموس و رایج بود که کودک باید کلمه‌ی مربوط به هر ‌کدام از عکس ­ها را به‌ زبان بلوچی بیان می­کرد. پاسخ هر ‌کدام از کودکان به‌صورت مجزا با استفاده از MP3 Player مدل Creative ضبط شد. آوانگاری­ها بر اساس سیستم IPA انجام یافت. در نهایت، فرآیندهای واجی مورد‌ استفاده‌ی کودکان استخراج شد و معنی‌داری میانگین استفاده از فرآیندهای واجی در دو گروه، از ‌طریق آزمون تحلیل چند‌متغیره و تحلیل یک­راهه در متن MANOVA بر‌رسی شد.
یافته­ ها
نتایج نهایی تحلیل نشان داد که بین عملکرد کلی دو گروه در کاربرد فرآیندهای واجی تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود دارد (0.00=P).
نتیجه ­گیری
پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که در میان فرآیندهای واجی، فرآیند حذف همخوان انسدادی بی‌واک، پربسامدترین فرآیند مورد ‌استفاده‌ی کودکان بلوچ‌زبان بوده ‌است. کاهش خوشه نیز یکی دیگر از فرآیندهای با بسامد بالا بود که در گفتار این کودکان، در خوشه ­ی همخوانی آغازه و پایانه‌ی هجا رخ ‌می­دهد؛ با این تفاوت که کاهش خوشه در خوشه‌ی همخوانی پایانی، بسامد بالاتری داشت. انسدادی‌شدگی، پیشین‌شدگی، کاهش هجا و واکرفتگی، از دیگر فرآیندهای واجی پر‌بسامد در این کودکان بود. فرآیند مضاعف‌شدگی در گفتار هیچ­کدام از دو گروه مشاهده نشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Phonological Processes between Balochi-Speaking Children with Hearing Loss and Hearing Peers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayyed Farid Khalifehloo 1
  • Mohaddeseh Soltaninejad 2
  • parviz seyyed zaee 3
1 1. Linguistics, English Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
2 PhD Student in Linguistics, English Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
3 MA in Linguistics, English Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Hearing is one of the most important factors in language acquisition. However, due to hearing losses, some children are unable to hear normal sounds. On this account, hearing-impaired children have difficulties in hearing voices and speech from a distance or in a noisy environment. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate and compare phonological processes between Balochi hearing-impaired children and their hearing peers and to study the effect of age and gender in using phonological process in these two groups. The results of our study can lead to a better understanding of the problem and a possible solution to this problem in future studies.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted on 16 Balochi speaking hearing-impaired children (8 girls and 8 boys) and 16 hearing children (8 girls and 8 boys), aged 7-10 years old who were randomly selected from schools in Zahedan. The research instrument was a researcher-made test. It comprised of 80 pictures of concrete and common concepts in that the students should refer to the signifier in Balochi per se. The responses were all recorded individually using an mp3 player (Creative model). Then, the recordings were transcribed by one of the researchers based on the IPA system. Finally, the phonological processes were examined. The significant of the means of phonological processes in the two groups were evaluated using multivariate analysis and one-way ANOVA in Manova text analysis.
Results: There was a significant difference between the overall performances of the two groups in using phonological process (P=0.00).
Conclusion: The present study showed that among the phonological processes, deletion of voiceless stop consonants was the most frequent process used by Baloch children. Cluster reduction was another high frequency process that occured in the speech of these children in onset and coda consonant clusters; the reduction of the cluster in coda consonant clusters had a higher frequency than onset consonant clusters. Stopping, fronting, syllable reduction, and devoicing were other high-frequency processes in the speech of these children. Reduplication was not observed in the speech of two groups.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phonological Processes؛ Hearing Impaired Children؛ Hearing
  • Baloch speaker
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