تأثیر بازی‌های شناختی منتخب بر ارتقا و پایداری کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان دچار اختلال هماهنگی رشدی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

3 گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

4 گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران.

10.32598/sjrm.10.3.16

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف: کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی به نوعی با آسیب در بخشی از کارکردهای اجرایی مواجه هستند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف مطالعه‌ تأثیر یادداری بازی‌های شناختی بر توسعه‌ سه مؤلفه‌ کارکردهای اجرایی (بازداری پاسخ ، حافظه‌‌ کاری و انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی) بین کودکان دچار اختلال هماهنگی رشدی طراحی و اجرا شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: پژوهش حاضر از نوع نیمه‌تجربی با گروه کنترل بود. سی دختر10-7 سال دچار اختلال هماهنگی رشدی، بر اساس نمره‌ کسب‌شده در مجموعه آزمون سنجش حرکت کودکان ویرایش دوم و بر اساس نمره‌ هوشی به دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل تقسیم شدند. از آزمون سنجش حرکت کودکان و آزمون هوشی کتل جهت غربالگری اولیه و از آزمون‌های N-Back, Stroop, and Go-NOGO جهت سنجش حافظه ‌‌‌کاری، انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی و بازداری پاسخ استفاده شد. پروتکل تمرینی شامل یک سری بازی‌های شناختی و حرکتی بود که صریحاً توسعه‌ یک مؤلفه مشخص از کارکردهای اجرایی را مد نظر قرار داده بود. داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون تحلیل واریانس دو راهه با اندازه‌گیری مکرر در عامل آزمون (زمان) با نرم‌افزار SPSS نسخه 26 تجزیه و تحلیل شدند.
یافته‌ها: یافته‌ها نشان داد عملکرد حافظه‌‌ کاری (0/000=P)، بازداری پاسخ (0/010=P) و انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی ( 0/045=P) در گروه آزمایشی از پیش‌آزمون به پس‌آزمون افزایش یافت، در‌حالی‌که چنین تغییری در گروه کنترل مشاهده نشد. همچنین، اثر بهبود‌دهنده بازی‌ها بر حافظه‌ ‌کاری (000/0=P) و بازداری پاسخ (0/033=P) تا آزمون یادداری (بعد از بی‌تمرینی) حفظ شد، درحالی‌که در آزمون یادداری بین انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی کودکان دچار اختلال هماهنگی رشدی گروه آزمایش و کنترل تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه‌گیری: بر پایه‌ یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر، بازی‌های شناختی حرکتی بر بهبود و ماندگاری حافظه‌ ‌کاری و بازداری پاسخ و توسعه انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی مؤثر ‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Selected Cognitive Games on the Promotion and Stability of Executive Functions in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorders

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narges Ghaderi 1
  • Mohamad Ali Aslankhani 2
  • Ehsan Zareian 3
  • Jaleh Baqirli 4
1 Department of Sports Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Tehran Central Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.
4 Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Children with developmental coordination disorders experience some form of impairment in some executive functions. The present study was designed and conducted to study the effect and retention of cognitive games on the development of three components of executive functions (response inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) among children with developmental coordination disorders.
Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental study with a control group. Thirty girls aged 7-10 years with developmental coordination disorder Based on the score obtained in the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition (MABC-2) test set and based on the IQ score, were divided into two experimental and control groups. MABC-2 and Cattle and intelligence tests were used for initial screening, and N-Back, Stroop, and Go-NOGO tests measured working memory, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition. The training protocol consisted of a series of purposeful cognitive and motor games that explicitly considered the development of a specific component of executive functions. Data were analyzed using a combined two-way analysis (2×3) of variance.
Results: The findings showed, performance Working memory (P=0.0001) performance, cognitive flexibility (P=0.045), and response inhibition (P=0.010) increased in the experimental group from pretest to posttest, While no such change was observed in the control group. Also, the effect of improving games on working memory (P=0.0001) and response inhibition (P=0.033) was maintained until the retention test. At the same time, there was no significant difference between cognitive flexibility in the retention test of children with developmental coordination disorder in the experimental group and control.
Conclusion: Based on the findings, cognitive-motor games effectively improve and maintain working memory, inhibit response, and develop cognitive flexibility. As a result, according to the results of this study and other studies, it can be acknowledged that intervention as a process as a process-oriented therapy with the involvement of the individual in a mental process improves the executive functions of children with developmental coordination disorder and games introduced in this Research is a good framework for designing and implementing high quality and reproducible programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • developmental coordination disorder
  • Play
  • Working memory
  • Eexecutive function
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