Effect of Quadriceps Muscular Fatigue on Knee Joint Kinetics at Different Flexion/Extension Velocities in Male Soccer Players

Document Type : Original article


1 Master of Science Student of Sport Biomechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Education Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

3 Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran


Background and Aims: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of quadriceps muscular fatigue on knee joint kinetics and kinematics in professional soccer players.
Materials and Methods: In the present semi-experimental study, 20 male soccer players (age: 22.90±2.29 years) volunteered to participate. Isokinetic dynamometer (Gymnex ISO 2) was used to measure biomechanical variables during 60, 180, and 360 degree/s angular velocities, each including three repetitions of different flexion/extension velocities. Shapiro-Wilks goodness-of-fit test was used for normality and paired samples t-Test and Two-Way analysis of Variance were used for data analysis (p<0/05).
Results: The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the peak extensor power in angular velocity of 60 degrees/s after fatigue as compared to before fatigue (p=0.002). Also, there was significant effects of velocity factor on peak extensor torque (P<0.001), peak flexor torque (P<0.001), peak extensor ratio torque (P<0.001), peak flexor ratio torque (P<0.001), peak extensor angle torque (P=0.048), peak extensor power (P=0.001), peak flexor power (P=0.003), peak extensor work (P<0.001), peak flexor work (P<0.001), total extensor work (P<0.001), total flexor work (P<0.001), and ratio Flexor strength to Extensor (P<0.001).
Conclusions:Our results demonstrated that peak extensor power in 60 degrees/s reduced after fatigue. Reduction of peak extensor power could be a possible reason of reduction of performance in the final parts of the competition.   


Main Subjects

1. Polito L, Figueira Jr A, Miranda M, Chtourou H, Miranda J, Brandão M. Psychophysiological indicators of fatigue in soccer players: A systematic review. Science & Sports. 2017;32(1):1-13.##
2. Djaoui L, Haddad M, Chamari K, Dellal A. Monitoring training load and fatigue in soccer players with physiological markers. Physiology & behavior. 2017. ##
3. Stølen T, Chamari K, Castagna C, Wisløff U. Physiology of soccer. Sports medicine. 2005;35(6):501-36. ##
4. McLean SG, Fellin RE, Suedekum N, Calabrese G, Passerallo A, Joy S. Impact of fatigue on gender-based high-risk landing strategies. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2007;39(3):502-14. ##
5. Paillard T. Effects of general and local fatigue on postural control: a review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2012;36(1):162-76. ##
6. Hatfield G. The Effects of Quadriceps Impairment on Lower Limb Kinematics, Kinetics And Muscle Activation During Gait In Young Adults: Dalhousie University; 2009. ##
7. Rozzi SL, Lephart SM, Gear WS, Fu FH. Knee joint laxity and neuromuscular characteristics of male and female soccer and basketball players. The American journal of sports medicine. 1999;27(3):312-9. ##
8. Rahnama N, Lees A, Reilly T. Electromyography of selected lower-limb muscles fatigued by exercise at the intensity of soccer match-play. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2006;16(3):257-63. ##
9. Jackson ND, Gutierrez GM, Kaminski T. The effect of fatigue and habituation on the stretch reflex of the ankle musculature. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology. 2009;19(1):75-84. ##
10. Hast MW, Piazza SJ. Position of the quadriceps actuator influences knee loads during simulated squat testing. Journal of biomechanics. 2018;73:227-32. ##
11. Sando JP, McCambridge TM. Nontraumatic sports injuries to the lower extremity. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 2013;14(4):327-39. ##
12. McGovern A, Dude C, Munkley D, Martin T, Wallace D, Feinn R, et al. Lower limb kinematics of male and female soccer players ##during a self-selected cutting maneuver: Effects of prolonged activity. The Knee. 2015;22(6):510-6.
13. Yu B, Garrett WE. Mechanisms of non-contact ACL injuries. British journal of sports medicine. 2007;41(1):47-51. ##
14. Alangari AS, Al-Hazzaa HM. Normal isometric and isokinetic peak torques of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in young adult Saudi males. Neurosciences. 2004;9(3):165-70. ##
15. Robertson G, Caldwell G, Hamill J, Kamen G, Whittlesey S. Research methods in biomechanics, 2E: Human Kinetics; 2013. ##
16. Wiklander J, Lysholm J. Simple tests for surveying muscle strength and muscle stiffness in sportsmen. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1987;8(01):50-4. ##
17. Lehnert M, Psotta R, Chvojka P, De Ste Croix MB. Seasonal variation in isokinetic peak torque in youth soccer players. Kinesiology. 2014;46(1):79-87. ##
18. Coqueiro KRR, Bevilaqua-Grossi D, Bérzin F, Soares AB, Candolo C, Monteiro-Pedro V. Analysis on the activation of the VMO and VLL muscles during semisquat exercises with and without hip adduction in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2005;15(6):596-603. ##
19. Serrão FV, Cabral CMN, Bérzin F, Candolo C, Monteiro-Pedro V. Effect of tibia rotation on the electromyographical activity of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis longus muscles during isometric leg press. Physical Therapy in Sport. 2005;6(1):15-23. ##
20. Choi B, Kim M, Jeon H-S. The effects of an isometric knee extension with hip adduction (KEWHA) exercise on selective VMO muscle strengthening. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2011;21(6):1011-6. ##
21. Masuda K, Masuda T, Sadoyama T, Inaki M, Katsuta S. Changes in surface EMG parameters during static and dynamic fatiguing contractions. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology. 1999;9(1):39-46. ##
22. Cifrek M, Tonković S, Medved V. Measurement and analysis of surface myoelectric signals during fatigued cyclic dynamic contractions. Measurement. 2000;27(2):85-92. ##
23. Gehring D, Melnyk M, Gollhofer A. Gender and fatigue have influence on knee joint control strategies during landing. Clinical Biomechanics. 2009;24(1):82-7. ##
24. Reimer RC, Wikstrom EA. Functional fatigue of the hip and ankle musculature cause similar alterations in single leg stance postural control. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2010; 13(1):161-6. ##
25. Rubenstein LZ. Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age and ageing. 2006;35(2):37-41. ##
26. Cohen J. A power primer. Psychological bulletin. 1992;112(1):155. ##
27. Barbieri FA, Dos Santos PCR, Lirani-Silva E, Vitório R, Gobbi LTB, Van Diëen JH. Systematic review of the effects of fatigue on spatiotemporal gait parameters. Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 2013;26(2):125-31. ##
28. Pincivero DM, Coelho AJ, Campy RM. Gender differences in perceived exertion during fatiguing knee extensions. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2004;36(1):109-17. ##
29. Hunter SK, Enoka RM. Sex differences in the fatigability of arm muscles depends on absolute force during isometric contractions. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2001;91(6):2686-94. ##
30. Hewett TE, Myer GD, Zazulak BT. Hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratios diverge between sexes with increasing isokinetic angular velocity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2008;11(5):452-9. ##
31. Sangnier S, Tourny-Chollet C. Comparison of the decrease in strength between hamstrings and quadriceps during isokinetic fatigue testing in semiprofessional soccer players. International journal of sports medicine. 2007;28(11):952-7. ##
32. Baroni BM, Ruas CV, Ribeiro-Alvares JB, Pinto RS. Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Torque Ratios of Professional Male Soccer Players: A Systematic Review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2018. ##
33. Matthews MJ, Heron K, Todd S, Tomlinson A, Jones P, Delextrat A, et al. Strength and endurance training reduces the loss of eccentric hamstring torque observed after soccer specific fatigue. Physical Therapy in Sport. 2017;25:39-46. ##
34. Liu J, Lockhart TE. Comparison of 3D joint moments using local and global inverse dynamics approaches among three different age groups. Gait & posture. 2006;23(4):480-5. ##
35. Parijat P, Lockhart TE. Effects of quadriceps fatigue on the biomechanics of gait and slip propensity. Gait & posture. 2008;28(4):568-73. ##
36. Enoka RM, Duchateau J. Muscle fatigue: what, why and how it influences muscle function. The Journal of physiology. 2008;586(1):11-23. ##
37. Bigland-Ritchie B, Johansson R, Lippold O, Woods J. Contractile speed and EMG changes during fatigue of sustained maximal voluntary contractions. Journal of neurophysiology. 1983;50(1):313-24. ##
38. Bigland‐Ritchie B, Kukulka C, Lippold O, Woods J. The absence of neuromuscular transmission failure in sustained maximal voluntary contractions. The Journal of physiology. 1982;330(1):265-78. ##
39. Qu X, Yeo JC. Effects of load carriage and fatigue on gait characteristics. Journal of biomechanics. 2011;44(7):1259-63. ##
40. Mercer J, Bates B, Dufek J, Hreljac A. Characteristics of shock attenuation during fatigued running. Journal of Sports Science. 2003;21(11):911-9. ##
41. Kellis E, Baltzopoulos V. The effects of the antagonist muscle force on intersegmental loading during isokinetic efforts of the knee extensors. Journal of biomechanics. 1999;32(1):19-25. ##
42. Remaud A, Cornu C, Guével A. Agonist muscle activity and antagonist muscle co-activity levels during standardized isotonic and isokinetic knee extensions. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2009;19(3):449-58. ##
43. Miller JP, Croce RV, Hutchins R. Reciprocal coactivation patterns of the medial and lateral quadriceps and hamstrings during slow, medium and high speed isokinetic movements. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2000;10(4):233-9. ##
44. Khaleghi F, Olyaei GR, Talebian Moghadam S, Malmir K, Bagheri H, Nakhostin Ansari N, et al. Effects of angular velocity alteration on the motor variability of knee externsor muscle synergies during isokinetic movements. Journal of Modern Rehabilitation. 2016;9(5):88-93. [In Persian] ##
Volume 8, Issue 2
July 2019
Pages 86-96
  • Receive Date: 03 October 2018
  • Revise Date: 18 November 2018
  • Accept Date: 25 November 2018
  • First Publish Date: 22 June 2019