اوتیسم و سیستم نورون های آینه ای : مروری بر مطالعات انجام شده با EEG

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری


دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی گفتاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران،ایران


مقدمه و اهداف
تئوری­های عصب شناختی مختلفی پیرامون اتیولوژی طیف اختلالات اوتیسم مطرح می­شوند که یکی از جدیدترین و مطرح­ترین تئوری­ها تئوری آینه شکسته می­باشد؛ و به بحث عملکرد سیستم نورون­های آینه­ای در مغز افراد مبتلا به اوتیسم می­پردازد. این تئوری در دنیا همچنان موضوع پژوهش­های مختلفی است و تاکنون نتایج مختلفی از آن استخراج شده است، اما انتظار می­رود با شناخت بهتر این سیستم درمان­های متمرکزتری با توجه به اتیولوژی برای کودکان مبتلا به اوتیسم طراحی شود. مطالعه­ی حاضر با هدف مرور سیستم نورون­های آینه­ای در افراد مبتلا به اوتیسم با استفاده از EEG انجام شد.
مواد و روش­ها
برای بررسی مقالات جستجوی پایگاههای اطلاعاتی Ovid، Proquest، Science direct، Google Scholar، Ebsco، با کلمات کلیدی اوتیسم، EEG، سیستم نورون­های آینه­ای انجام شد.
از بین مقالات، 6 مقاله که در متد آنها از EEG جهت بررسی عملکرد سلول­های آینه­ای در کودکان مبتلا به اوتیسم استفاده شده بود، مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. در 4 مطالعه تفاوت آماری معناداری بین عملکرد نورون­های آینه­ای بین گروه افراد مبتلا به اوتیسم و کنترل وجود داشت و در 2 مطالعه تفاوت معناداری بین دو گروه مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه­ گیری
مطالعات موجود بیشتر به نفع تفاوت در تضعیف موج mu بین افراد گروه کنترل و مبتلا به اوتیسم بوده است. با توجه به حجم مطالعات موجود، متدلوژی متفاوت مطالعات، ناهمگونی­های رفتاری و معیارهای تشخیصی نتایج از همگونی مناسبی برخوردار نمی­باشد، اما می­توان با احتیاط چنین بیان کرد که نتایج بیشتر مطالعات با استفاده از EEG، به نفع بدعملکردی در MNS افراد مبتلا به اوتیسم بوده است. داده­های تجربی بیشتری با رویکردهای تصویربرداری عصبی پیشرفته­تر برای حمایت از تئوری آینه شکسته مورد نیاز است.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Autism and Mirror Neuron System: A Review-Based on EEG

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akram Ahmadi
  • Maryam Faham
PhD student of Speech and Language Pathology, Department of Speech and Language Pathology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Different neurological theories have been suggested to discuss the etiology of autism. One of the most recent and premier theories is the Broken Mirror Theory, that concerns the mirror neuron dysfunctions in the patients' brain. This issue is currently the topic of research in the world and so far various results have been reported. It is expected that better understanding of this system can lead to designing more detailed treatments. The present review was carried out following EEG to summarize the previous studies on mirror neuron system in individuals with autism.
Materials and Method: Databases of ScienceDirect, Ebsco, Google Scholar, Ovid, Proquest, and PubMed were searched using the following keywords: autism, mirror neuron system, and EEG.
Results: Six papers were selected since they implemented EEG as their instrument to evaluate the Mirror Neuron System in people with autism spectrum disorder. It was revealed that in four studies there were statistically significant differences in Mirror Neuron System’s function between people with autism and those in control group, while in the other two studies, no significant difference was observed between the two groups.
Conclusion: These studies support the difference in mu wave suppression between people with autism and control group. Considering the available studies, factors such as research methodology, behavioral heterogeneity, and diagnostic criteria may have influenced the results; however, it can conservatively be stated that the results of most studies indicate dysfunction in mirror neuron system of autistic people. More experimental data with more advanced neural imaging techniques are required to support mirror neuron system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Autism
  • Mirror Neuron
  • EEG
  • Mirror Neuron System
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